Reliability and Validity

Validity is
the appropriateness of a test in measuring what it is designed to measure
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the degree to which a test produces the same scores when applied in the same circumstances
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the degree to which different observers agree on measurements
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what are the sub-topics of validity
logical (face and content), construct, statistical (concurrent and predictive)
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Logical - face validity
obviously valid like measuring height (not always externally valid)
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Logical - content validity
measures ALL intervening variables (also subjective)
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Statistical- concurrent validity
infers the test gives similar results to other validated test e.g. incremental treadmill protocol and MSFT for VO2max
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Statistical - predictive validity
externally valid, helpful in the future
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Construct Validity
the test measureswhat it's supposed to as well as what should exist intangibly e.g. rivalry
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maturation - changes in the DV over time
pre-test post-test randomised group comparison
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history - unplanned events between meaurements e.g. extra exercise
control extraneous variables
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pre-testing - interactive effects like habituation
solomon 4 group design
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statistical regression - initial extreme scores likely to be followed by less extreme
effective sampling
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instrumentation - uncalibrated equipment
calibrate equipment
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selection bias - groups for comparison aren't equivalent
random assignment
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experimental mortality - subject drop-out
recruit suitable participants
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inadequate description of study design - unreplicable
comprehensive methodology
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biased sampling - doesn't reflect the target population
random sample of target population
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Hawthorne Effect - DV affected due to being recorded
control the lab environment
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demand characteristics - participants discover study purpose
double blind trials
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operationalisation - DV must have relevance to the outside world
choose DV carefuly
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what is reliability
a pre-requisite of validity, results must be repeatable
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what are the 3 types of reliability
relative, absolute and rater
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what is relative reliability
small fluctuations in results but retested individuals maintain position in the group
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what is absolute reliability
whether test-retest within individuals is exactly the same (down to degree of accuracy)
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what is Intrarater reliability
consitency of observer's measurement
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what is Interrater reliability
agreement between different raters
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give more time between tests
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familiarise subjects prior to test
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non-standardisation of procedures
control extraneous variables
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precision of measurements
be precise but not too precise
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ultimately, reliability is dependent on what?
the degree of measurement error
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the degree to which a test produces the same scores when applied in the same circumstances

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what are the sub-topics of validity


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Logical - face validity


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