Observations

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  • OBSERVATION
    • Types of Observation
      • Structured
        • Key behaviours are identified before observation
        • Can miss out important behaviours
        • Can take meaning away from behaviours
      • Non-Structured
        • No set categories to identify
      • Disclosed
        • Know they're being observed
      • Undisclosed
        • Unaware of what researcher is doing
        • Ethical dispute between deception and ecological validity
      • Controlled
        • In a lab setting
        • e.g. reaction to a video
      • Non-Controlled
        • In natural environment
    • Definition
      • Direct records of participants behaviours as it occurs
      • Used to form hypotheses, make inferences and provide meaning to our social world
    • Degree of Observation
      • Full Participant
        • Observer is seen as valid member of the group. Role is hidden
      • Participant as Observer
        • Role is not hidden but is kept quiet. Not seen as main purpose for presence
      • Observer as Participant
        • Participants are aware that observer is there
      • Non-Participant / Open
        • Fly on the wall
    • Advantages/ Disadvantages of Observations
      • Full Participant
        • Full immersion into phenomenon being investigated
        • Takes time to build rapport
        • Hard to maintain objectivity
      • Participant as Observer
        • Researcher has more freedom - in depth observation
        • Takes time to build rapport
        • Ethical Issues
      • Observer as Participant
        • Researcher can ask questions so more info can be collected
        • Observer doesn't play real role in group - can cause tension
      • Non-Participant
        • Fly on the wall - no influence from researcher
        • No real experience of phenomenon
    • When to use Observations
      • When you need a natural environment
    • Coaching Behaviour Assessment System
      • Framework for assessing coaches behaviour in sport
      • REACTIVE behaviours
        • In response to player/team behaviour
      • SPONTANEOUS BEHAVIOURS
        • Behaviours of coach not elicited by players
    • Inter-Rater Reliability
      • Test re-test method.
      • Degree to which different researchers give consistent  evidence of same behaviours
    • Strengths/Weaknesses
      • In depth analysis, high ecological validity, natural setting
      • Can cause investigator effects, bias may occur, smaller populations so less generalisable

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