Turning to Crime - Biology - Evaluation (2)
Reductionism v Holism:
R - Most research in this area is very reductionist - only looks at biology as a cause for crim behaviour e.g. brain dysfunction. However, Raine is slightly holistic as he states biology only prediosposes an individual to crime. He says biological conditions can be "switched on and off" by environmetal conditions.
B - Brunner only discussed the aggressive behaviour of the affected males in relation to the gene mutation (biological reductionism). There are many other potential causes of the aggressive behaviour in the participants which weren't taken into account e.g.the mental retardation itself.
Determinism v Freewill:
R - Raine's study suggests crim behaviour can be determined by dysfunctions in the brain (biological determinism). However, the study also suggests these effects can be mediated by the environment, but doesn't suggest that there is any element of free will or "choice" in criminal behaviour.
B - Brunner suggests gene mutation determined the behaviours of these 5 aggressive males (biological determinism).