Brain Dysfunction; Raine.
Aim; Take a multi-factorial approach to understanding anti-social & aggressive behaviour in children with a biological focus.
Method & Procedure; Review article. summarising selection of articles covering neuropsychological, neurological and brain imaging studies (MRI), and report findings as relate to antisocial behaviour through a childs development.
Results; Raine pulls different threads/categories. 1) low resting heart rate predictor of an individual seek excitement to raise arousal levels - fearless temperament. need more adrenaline to get 'a kick' often leading to crimes such as joy riding cars. 2) the adolescent brain is still forming connections in the pre-frontal lobes into early 20s. means the crime curve peaks at 17, as still developing the brain is not fully matured. 3) birth complications/poor parenting/abuse/malnutrition/smoking/drinking during pregnancy adds to the risk - damage to health to the baby often neurologically poor development through childhood.
Conclusion; Raine concluded that early intervention/prevention effective way of reversing biological deficits that pre-dispose to anti-social/aggressive behaviour.
Genes and Serotonin; Brunner et al.
"supermale syndrome" - males with an extra Y chromosome predisposed as violent criminals. average height and under average intelligence.
Aim; To explain the behaviour of a large family in the Netherlands.
Participants; family in Netherlands. males were affected by a syndrome of borderline mental retardation and abnormal violent behaviour. Abnormal violent behaviour included attempted ****, impulsive aggression, arson and exhibitionism. Borderline mental retardation had a low IQ.
Method; analysis of urine samples over a 24 hour period.
Results; tests showed p's have a disturbed monoamine metabolism associated with a deficit of the enzyme MONOAIME OXIDASE. This is a genetic defect. Disrupted monoamine metabolism causes borderline mental retardation.
Conclusion; The combination of borderline mental retardation and disrupted serotonin metabolism may account for violent behaviour.
Gender; Daley and Wilson.
Often seen that males exhibit risk-taking behaviour when there is a chance other males/females will see them. Evolutionists believe this is because of the pressure of mate selection for continuence of the human species.
Aim; To find correlations between neighbourhoods homocide rates and risk-taking behaviour also considering school truancy.
Method; Correlational study using survey data from police records, school records, local demographic records collected by population census.
Procedure; Studied local cimmunities in Chicago where there is a lower than average male life expectancy.
Results; Neighbourhoods where there is high homocide rates people dont have high life expectancy. Young men in these areas take risk taking behavious as they know they will not live long. This short-time horizon is something the noticed in young maleoffenders. Neighbourhoods with low life expectancy also have higher truancy levels.
Conclusion; When life expectancy is low males are more likely to take risks.