Stalin's Leadership During WW2.
- Re-established Stavka July 1941.
- Embarked on a course of rapid industrialisation.
- Listened: 'Stalin learned from his mistakes, whereas Hitler only grew more unwielding with each failure' - David Reynolds.
- Sacked incompetent generals e.g Voroshilov
- Took control of his central theatre and put skilled individuals in charge - Zhukov
- Ignored warnings of attack.
- Running on Civil War tactics against German Blitzkreig.
- Refusal to reatreat at Kharkov in 1943 cost 85,000 soviet casulties.
- 500,000 troops lost after ignoring Zhukovs advice to retreat in 1941.
- Did not allow his own forces to mobilise until under physical attack.
Soviet Wartime Economy
- 50% more production was turned out before the evacuation.
- Defence industry rose from 3.4 billion roubles in 1937 to 38.7 in 1944.
- Artillery, tanks and aircraft production doubled between 1940-1944.
- Quadrupled ammunition in 2 years. 1940- 63,000. 1942- 238,000.
- Focus on agriculture decreased.
- GDP total decreased from 247.6 in 1940 to 192.2 in 1944.
- Production of coal fell from 150 million tonns in 1940 to 80 million in 1942.
- GDP per head was lower than other countries such as Germany and USA in 1940.
Society During WW2.
- Orthodox churches restored to favour. By the end of 1943 there were over 15000 churches.
- Spread of propaganda coined the term 'The Great Patriotic War' encouraged national pride and support.
- Thousands of suspects shot by the NKVD as well as soldiers who retreated on the battlefield.
- 800,000 women served in the Soviet armed forces during WW2.
- 200,000 women were decorated. 89 received 'hero of the Soviet Union' award.
- Partisan movement. 300,000 Germans killed in Belorussia.
Military Influence in WW2.
Battle of Kursk.
- July & August 1943.
- Biggest tank battle ever.
- Gave the Soviets strategic initative and created a series of defense lines.
- German delays to wait for weapons (Tiger heavy tank). Allowed information to get out which told the Soviets where the attack would fall.
Siege of Leningrad.
- Sept 1941-Jan 1944.
- 1,500,000 soldiers and civilians die after 872 days of siege caused destructive famine.
- Germans lost Finnish support.
- Oct 1941-Jan1942.
- 'Operation Tycoon'
- Severed the Moscow-Leningrad railway.
- Germans allowed Soviet counter-offensive to surround 3 German armies.
Economic Impact Of WW2.
- Loss of men reduced workers.
- Farms were destroyed due to scorched earth policy.
- Military expenses were high. 38.7 billion roubles had been spent on the defence industry by 1944.
- Heavy industry was strong.
- Light industry/agriculture are neglected.
Political Impact Of WW2.
- 18.3% rise in female membership of the party.
- 75% joined the war effort.
- After the war, Stalin regained any power he had shared.
- GKO set up - made sure Stalin had 'all the power and authority of the state' behind him.
- Stalin became more of a dictator after the war.
Social Impact Of WW2
- Mass patriotism followed victory.
- 1/5 of pre-war population had been lost.
- Gender imbalance - 20 million Soviet men died.
- More supressed - free public speech was non-existent.
- Returning soldiers sent to Gulags in fear they would spread Western ideas to Soviet people.
'Stalin learned from his mistakes, whereas Hitler only grew more wielding with each failure. - David Reynolds.
'He gave his top generals the freedom to fight.' - David Reynolds.
'Stalin intended to terrorise his army into fighting.' - David Reynolds.
'The influence of the Orthodox Church ... could not serve as a source of inspiration in the struggle against the enemy.' -Rzeheshevsky.
'The most massive and most effective evacuatione ver undertaken in history.' -Rzeheshevsky.
'For the soviet people, the post-war period was even more difficult then the war period.' - Peter Kenez.
'Was all the more disappointing for a society expecting some reward for wartime sacrifices and victories.' - Christopher Reid.
- Steel increased from just 12 million tonns in 1945 to 27 in 1950.
- All fourth-five year plans are met or exceeded.
- Index of producers' goods almost doubles from 112 in 1945 to 205 in 1950.
- 261 million tonns of coal by 1950.
- Quantity not quality.
- Agriculture production fell short of the 127 1950 target to 99.
- 60-70% of harvested grain was exported to fund heavy industry.
- Collectivisations starved peasants.
- Consumer demand was ignored.
- Lack of light industry.
- Economic support from Western countries such as USA/Britain was lost.
- 'Hysterical Isolation'
- Zhdanov introduces cultural reforms - banned intellectuals who didn't follow the party line. Shostakovich exiled.
- Religion tolerated as long as it presented no threat to states control of public opinion.
- Only high-ranking party officials could travel abroad.
- Leningrad Affair - 200 party officials were arrested and some shot.
- 'Doctors Plot' - Kremlin doctors, most of them Jewish arrested and accused of plotting to kill Stalin.
- One party state.
- Viewed as God-Like
- Cult of personality stronger than ever.
- Stavka's power removed.
- Stalin regained full control and Zhukov is fired.
- Less purges but more fear.
- Massive growth in party due to mass patriotism.
- Party given a minumum role and congress was barely called.
- Economically military spending remained high.
- Atomic bomb acquired in 1949.
- Totalitarian State.
- Yalta and Potsdam conferences in 1945 effectively caused the Cold War.
- Increase in NKVD involvement.
- 1948 Berlin Blockade - Cut off USA/Britains supply trains.
'Ill-judged interventions of authority, excessive centralisation of decisions, low prices, insufficient investment and lack of adequete incentives.' - Alex Nove.
'It is indisputible that the Stalinist methods worked, and the speed of reconstruction was impressive.' - Peter Kenez.
'Stalin;s power was less supreme than is popularly imagined.' - Hahn.
'Self-confident tyrant in charge of a smoothly functioning, totalitarian machine, but a sickly old man.' - Chris Ward.
'A sickly old man - unpredictable, dangerous ... presiding over a ramshackle bureaucracy.' - Chris Ward.