1. Bed Rest
3. Over the Counter Medicine
4. Deciding When to seek Medical help
Principles of Home Nursing
- informal care
- personal care, washing, bathing, dressing
- supervising treatment, giving medication at the correct time and checking dosage.
- providing nutrition, prepearing and making sure the individual eats an appropriate diet, liquidizing food, giving food and drink suppliments or preparing meals.
- hygiene, making sure they have clean nappies and incontinance pads.
- social contact, engaging in conversation
- lianising with other health practitioners.
- there is less risk of infection
Principles of hospital nursing. q
- personal care
- there are intravenous drips
- there are detailed and accurate records
- hospital patients have less choice
- personal care is made easier by hoists
- staff have high levels of experience
- trained staff are available 24/7
- nurses must maintain dignity
- large teams of staff
- greater range of treatments
- monitoring health
Principles of Intensive care nursing.
- the ratio of staff to patients is high
- patients usually have to be fed using tubes and life support
- high levels of hygiene are required
- patients are closely monitored
- staff need specialist skills.
How are drugs Classified?
By their disorder- they are grouped according to the disorder they treat.
Chemical- they are grouped according to their chemical composition.
By their bodily effects- they are grouped according to the effects they have on the body.
How are drugs Named?
Brand name- the manufacturers name.
Generic name- name of the family of drugs.
Chemical name- chemical composition of the drug.
Drugs are tested for...
Safety- long and short term side effects.
Effectiveness- do they work?
drugs can be perscribed by..
persciption only- must be taken under medical supervision.
over the counter- can be bought without a perscription.
Methods for administering drugs? MOUTH
This is the most common method used, the drug is swallowed and passes through the intestine where some of it is absorbed into the blood, this resuts in the drug being transported into different parts of the body via the blood stream, this is an effective way of treating bacterial infections. some drugs are desgined to be released over a period of several hours, providing continuous relief. it is user friendly enabling patients to administer the drugs.
Methods for administering drugs? SPRAY
patient uses an inhaler which delievers a fine spray of the drug to the airway and lungs, effective method of targetting drugs to the respiritory system, patients have to be taught how to use one otherwise the method of druf administration is easy and gives rapid relief.
Methods for administering drugs? SUPPOSTIRIES.
bullet shaped blocks of gel that contain drugs are inserted into the rectum via the anus, the gel slowly dissolves and the drug is absorbed into the blood via the wall of the rectum, this method is used to administer drugs that would be destroyed by the digestive system, some find it unpleasent, to minimise embarrasment the patient would administer the drugs themselves
Methods for administering drugs? INJECTIONS
drugs can be injected directly into the body via a needle, some drugs are injected subcutaneously (into the layer of fat just beneath the skin surface)
How can we define surgery?
a procedure or technique in which body tissues are cut
What are the Purposes of surgery?
1. to remove and inspect unhealthy tissue
2. to modify and re-build diseased and damaged body tissues
3. to bypass malfunctioning organs
4. to implant electronic or mechanical devices
Surgery can be?
What is transplant surgery?
this involves replacing damaged organs with new healthy organs donated by live or deseaced individuals. Lungs, Livers, Hearts, Kidneys can be transplanted. this is major surgery and would require some form of general anaesthetic.
Puts individuals to sleep, it makes them immobile. Prevents them from feeling pain and relaxes muscles, it uses a drug which blocks the signals that pass along the nerves to the brain.
A drug is used to numb a specifc area of the body by preventing signals from the affected part of the body travelling along nerves in the brain. it does not make the individual loose conciousness, a patient can still live it can be used during brain surgery when the patient has to be alert.
What is Minor Surgery?
Minor Surgery involves procedures that are; less damaging to body tissues, shorter in length and from which the recovery time is much less. A general anaesthetic may not be neccessary, in which case a local anaethetic is used. this enables the patient to stay awake and co-operate with practitoners. minor surgery can sometimes be performed during an outpatients visit this is known as day surgery (endoscopic and laser surgery).
What is Micro Surgery?
This uses a ranges of specialised equiptment to perform operations on very small structures in the body. this equpitment includes a binocular microscope, through which the surgeon views the operation site and small surgical instruments such as minature scaples and sticthing needles. Micro techniques are used to operate on the eye and middle ear, they are also neccessary during replantaton.
What is meant by aspetic techniques?
Aseptic techniques are used to prevent the spread of microbes and are used to ensure the diseases dont spread spread (avoiding contamination). avoid the introduction of pathogenic organisms into the vulnerable body,
When are aseptic techniques used.
2. vaginal labour
3. chest tubes
How are aseptic conditions maintained?
1. disposable gloves
4. disposable masks
How are aseptic conditions achiieved?
by the steralisation during and post operation/surgery.
by the steralisation of impliments and using disposables.
using a ventalation system
The laser produces a beam of high intensity light which will be focused on a small precise part of the body, it will destroy and cut through tissue, the heat will burn through cells (cornea, skin tags).
What is Radio Therapy?
Radio Therapy is the medical use of ionizing radiation as a part of cancer treatment to control malignant cells.
How does Radio Therapy work?
Radio therapy works by damaging the DNA of cells the damage is caused by a ion beam directly or indirectly ionizing the atoms which make up the DNA chain. Cancerous cells are less able to repair sub-lethal damage than most healthy cells
How is radiotherapy given?
INTERNALLY- the pellets of radioactive material are implanted into the diseased tissue using a needle, the pellets remain in the body and emit gamma rays which gradually reduce in intensity,
EXTERNALLY- a beam of radiation is directed at the part of the body to be treated, this uses a converging beam.
How often is radio therapy givem?
the total dosage is fractionated, it allows normal cells time to recover whilst tumour cells are generally less efficient in repair between fractions.
Side effects of radio therapy
- reduced tissue elasticity
- infertitllity (if treatment is focused in the pelic area)
Benefits of radio-therapy?
- Targets localised areas (Externally)
- reduces damadge to surrounding cells
- side efffects are not life threatening
- can lead to complete recovery
What is Dialysis?
Dialysis is a type of treatment that involves reciplicating many of the functions of the kidneys, its used to treat cases of kidney failure, (renal disease- where the kidneys have been severly damaged).
The functions of the Kidneys?
- filter blood
- remove waste products
What are the symptoms of kidney failure?
SWELLING OF THE FEET HANDS AND ANKLES
What are the two types of dialysis?
What is Haemodialysis?
it involves inserting a needle into a blood vessle, which is attached by a tube to a dialysis machiene. Blood is tansfered from your body and into the machiene, which filters out waste products and excess fluids, when the blood goes into the machiene it is filtered by a membranem the waste products fuse across the membrane into the dialyssi fluid. a fresh saline solution is added to the filtered blood which is then passed back into the body.
What is Peritoneal dialysis?
involves using the peritoneum as a filter. this is a thin membrane that lines the inside of the abdomen, and surrounds and supports the abdominal organs, such as the stomach and the liver. like the kidneys the peritoneum contains thousands of tiny blood vessles making it as useful as a filtering device.
during peritoneal dialysis a small flexible tube known as a catheter is attached to an incision in your abdomen, as a special fluid known as dialysis fluid is pumped into your pertioneal cavity, this is the space surrounding the pertoneum.
as blood moves through the peritoneum, waste products and excess fluid are moved out of the blodd and into the dialysis fluid, the fluid is then drained out of the cavity.
it can be carried out at home usually overnight
disadvantages of haemodilysis
- to a large extent you will have to plan your lif e around dialysis
- your diet and the amounts of fluid that you drink will need to be restriced.
Advantages of haemodialysis
- you will have 4 dialysis free days a week
- it results in a more complete removal of waste products from the blood.
advantages of Peritonal dialysis
- doesnt require visits to a dialysis unit
- the equiptment is portable
- less restiction to diet
- can be done overnight
disadvantages of peritoneal dialysis
- need to perform it everyday
- increases the risk of your peritoneum being infected with bacteria
- blood is not as effectivly cleaned