Topic 2 - AQA INFO3 ICT

Information and systems

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Different organisations have different information

  • Public ownership - a service owned by the state. These organisations are large and have a bureaucratic style management. These organisations share and store personal data.
  • Public and private limited companies - their accounts must be independently audited and available for inspection. The ownership of a limited company is divided into shares and are held by shareholders. 
  • Private companies - these businesses are usually small and so not require much capital investment. The owners adopt a hands-on approach and internal information flow is mostly informal. They do need to exchange information with external authorities (tax and VAT).  
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Different activities within an organisation have d

  • Customer support - the provision of customer service and support may be supplied personally by either a sales or service representative. It may also be provided by the automated self-service approach. 
  • Ordering systems - there has been a growth in the use of automated ordering systems in the retail market. This allows the organisation to automatically re-order stock based on a calculated stock-holding level. The following information is used: quantity of stock on hand, stock already on order etc.. Past and future demand can be dependant on many factors such as seasonal information. The accuracy of the ordering system has huge financial implications and a Just in Time strategy may be used.  
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Different levels of task have different informatio

  • StrategicResponsible for decision making and long-term planning. Their information needs would include details of organisation and rival company performance, accounting and financial information, and technological developments. The majority of this information is provided by management information system.
  • TacticalThey require the following information: detailed requirements of senior management, department resources, budgetary provision and summary reports.
  • OperationalThey need information on the day-to-day tasks that need to be carried out.  
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Different personnel have different information nee

  • Suppliers - supermarkets may have an agreement with suppliers so that they can get priority over other business's. The supplier will require details of the order. 
  • Customers - in an online transaction, the customer will use the supplier shopping cart. They will then complete an online form. The supplier will then confirm the details and transaction. 
  • Office & legal organisations - information transfer is usually electronic using pre-defined online forms which automatically enter information into the organisations database. ICT may be used do validate and verify data entered.
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Organisations have to exchange information with ex

  • When an organisation exchanges information with external bodies it is essential that it maintain standards for privacy, security and that it complies with legal requirements. 
  • Organisations have to make sure they maintain the privacy of their clients and customers. Cookies can have impact on the user's privacy. 
  • Security and data transmission can be achieved through the use of HTTPS. 
  • External organisations need to maintain a private and secure network. This can be done through the following: firewall, access rights, encryption, backing up and physical security. 
  • There are risks with the use of portable memory devices. They can be lost and copies can be made easily. 
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ICT systems support the activities of organisation

  • The role of ICT is to improve the efficiency and the effectiveness of business processes. An ICT strategy created by senior management can make sure technology and ICT systems are appropriate to the activities of the organisation.
  • The introduction of a new system will require many aspects such as upgrading of hardware or software and training of staff. The organisations would plan the implementation of these activities through a time plan. 
  • ICT systems can be used by nearly all organisations and some of these functions include: human resource management, payroll and company finance and accounts. 
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Information transfer between ICT systems both inte

  • Most large organisations use ICT systems for common activities such as payroll, personnel management and accounting. The organisation may decide on either a bespoke or off-the-shelf package. This choice is affected by the requirements of external agencies as there is a need for compatibility for successful information transfer. 
  • Supply chains - lines of distribution for the organisation's goods or services. It is vital for a high quality supply chain to exist if a business is to be efficient and profitable. 
  • Supply chain management - the control of materials, information and finances as they move in a process from supplier to manufacturer to wholesaler to retailer to consumer. Effective supply chain management aims to reduce the stock of products held to a minimum. 
  • Legacy systems - computer systems or application programs which continue to be used even though more modern versions exist. 
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Types of ICT system and their uses

  • Back office systems - systems that run the internal operations of an organisation.
  • Transaction processing systems - are used at operational level for everyday data collection tasks.
  • Management information systems - systems that convert data into information that can be used by mangers for strategic level decisions.
  • Enterprise systems - systems that support cross functional requirements.
  • Decision support systems - systems that process data and produce information that can be used to make decisions. 
  • E-commerce systems - support the buying and selling of products using electronic systems.
  • Customer relationship management system - stores data in order to improve the service the customer receives.
  • Document management system - searches archives. 
  • Workflow system - helps organisations to analyse and manage their business processes. 
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