Unit 3

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  • Created by: Maddie
  • Created on: 30-12-13 12:27
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  • Unit 3
    • Future developments
      • Emerging technologies
        • Mobile working
        • Bluetooth
        • Blackberry (PDA)
        • Nanotechnology
        • Robotics
      • Pages 2-9
      • Potential future uses of ICT
        • Wireless energy
        • Novel user interfaces
        • Flexible screens
        • Smart cars
        • The national DNA database
        • Face recognition
      • Implications of future developments and uses of ICT
        • The impact on society
        • Problems and abuses of new technology
        • The impact on the way organisations are run
        • The impact on individuals as consumers and as workers
        • The impact on individuals as workers
        • The issues surrounding the rapid development of ICT
          • Social Issues
          • Cultural Issues
          • Environmental Issues
          • Ethical Issues
          • Technical Issues
          • Legal Issues
          • Economic Issues
    • Information and systems
      • Types of ICT system
        • Back Office System
          • Usually accounts and database management
          • Run routine business tasks
          • Record sales, purchases, update stock, etc
        • Transaction Processing Systems
          • Process transactions as they arise
            • i.e: Booking a flight
        • Workflow Management Systems
          • Used when lots of different people work on a document
          • Routes documents to different personnel
          • Reduces bottlenecks in the flow of work
        • Workflow and document management systems
          • Used when data arrives in different forms
          • Keeps track of electronically stored documents
          • Typical application: dealing with insurance claims
        • Management information systems
          • Takes internal and external data
          • Processes it to produce information
          • Presents information in suitable form
          • To enable managers to make effective decisions
        • Systems for collaborative working
          • Used when lots of people work together on a task
          • Uses communications
          • Uses video conferencing, file sharing, email, etc.
        • Decision Support System (DSS)
          • Supports decision-making process
          • Enables managers to choose from business options
          • Can estimate figures and produce forecasts
        • Customer Relationship management system
          • Helps with the day-to-day management of customers
          • Keeps track of customers
          • Allows analysis of past orders
          • Helps increase sales
          • Allows more effective marketing
          • Allows cross-selling
        • Enterprise Information System
          • Deals with all functions of a large organisation
          • Integrates all business activities (eg accounts, finance, etc)
          • Allows links to business partners (eg suppliers, customers, etc)
      • Pages18-30
      • Classifying Organisations
        • Type
          • Commercial
          • Industrial
          • Public Service
        • Scale
          • Small (1-50 employees)
          • Medium (51-500 employees)
          • Large (Over 500)
        • Nature of management scale
          • Autocratic
            • Clear authority
            • Few decisions made lower down
          • Paternalistic
            • Decisions made in employees interests
          • Democratic
            • Employees take part in decision making
          • Laissez-faire
            • Very little management
            • Staff left to get on with their work
    • Managing ICT
      • Pages 42-44
      • How the size of an organisation affects the formalities with which ICT is managed
        • Small Organisation
          • Few tiers of management
          • Less hierarchical
          • Staff work more on own initiative
          • Staff have less formal roles
          • Informal systems
        • Large Organisation
          • Many tiers of management
          • Very hierarchical
          • People undertake specific tasks
          • Formal systems
      • ICT Policies
        • Training Policy
          • Matching of people to jobs
          • Regular assessment of skills
          • Assessment of training needs
          • Appropriate training given
        • Procurement Policy
          • Large contracts open to tender
          • Must consider value for money
          • Hardware purchased must be above a certain spec
          • Software must work with existing operating system
        • Security Policies
          • Legal Compliances
            • DPA 1998
            • Computer Misuse Act 1990
            • Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988
          • Usernames/ Passwords
            • Keep confidential
            • Forbid use of other people's
          • Forbid non-institutional use
          • Equipment
            • No movement without permission
            • No attachment to network without permission
          • Uses
            • Must not damage ICT facilities
            • Must not modify software
            • Minimise use of consumables
            • Forbid food/drink in ICT rooms
            • Avoid annoyance to others
          • Health and safety
            • Compliance with health and safety laws
            • Adopt safe working practices
          • Penalties for infringement
            • Legal penalties
            • Disciplinary action
    • ICT Strategy
      • Pages 52-54
      • Factors affecting ICT system strategy
        • Business goals
        • The need to interface with legacy systems
        • The geography of clients and business fulfillment
        • Available finance
        • Legislation
        • Compliance
      • The need for corporate strategy covering technology for ICT systems in large organisations
        • Future proofing
          • Scaleable networks
          • Application software independent of operating system
          • Data stored separate to database software
          • Large amounts of data storage
          • Higher processing than is needed at the time
        • Developments in technology
          • Need a flexible strategy that can be changed
          • Need to be able to move quickly to ensure competitive advantage
        • Procurement
          • Procedures
          • Ensuring value for money
          • Tenders for large contracts
        • Technology life cycle
          • Research and development
          • The ascent phase
          • The maturity phase
          • The decline phase
        • Information Management
          • Systems allow the production of management information
          • Information must be available to anyone who needs it
        • People considerations
          • Reorganisation may be needed
          • Existing staff will need training in new technology
          • New staff may be needed
    • Legislation
      • Copyright, designs and patents act 1988
        • Checks for unauthorised software
        • No illegal downloads- forbidden by acceptable use policy
        • Check no more copies of software are being used than the license allows
      • Computer Misuse Act 1990
        • Forbid staff from planting viruses
        • Forbid staff from doing unauthorised work
        • Ensure checks are in place to detect fraud
        • Ensure users do not swap usernames and passwords
      • Freedom of information act 2000
        • Ensure requests for disclosure are met
        • Provide details of any codes used
      • Health and safety at work act
        • Regular inspection of ICT workstations and room
        • Working practices for staff to change tasks
        • Training to minimise the risks to staff
        • Arrange for regular eye tests and payment for glasses if needed
        • Create software whichis not stressful to use
      • DPA 1998
        • Appoint a data controller
        • Notify the information commissioner's office that organisation is processing personal data
        • Adopt proceedures that allow subject access
        • Procedures to allow records to be changed should info held be wrong
        • Staff training to educate them about the DPA
        • Procedures to ensure the privacy and security of data held
    • Development methods
      • Systems Development Life Cycle
        • 1) System investigation/ feasability
          • Project definition
          • Aims and objectives of new system
          • Initial fact find
          • Investigation into the technical, legal, economic, operational and schedule implications
          • Cost/benefit analysis
          • Recommendations as to feasability
        • 2) Analysis
          • Understanding the existing system
          • Gathering/ analysing user requirements
          • Using tools and techniques such as dfd's, data models, process specifications and systems diagrams
          • Producing a logical specification
        • 3) Design
          • Designing the system with the user requirements
          • Creating the the design specification for hardware, software, telecommunications, databases, personnel and procedures
        • 4) Build/ constructing solution
          • Use the physical design to produce a working system
          • Write programming code/customise package
          • Use software tools to produce working version
          • Producing working system to user requirements
        • 5) Test
          • Testing at very detailed levels
          • Testing at a higher level
          • Testing at a systems level
        • 6) Installation and conversion
          • Installing hardware
          • Installing software
          • Conversion of previous data
          • Training of all users
          • Production of documentation and training guides
        • 7) Review and maintenance
          • Checking solution meets user requirements
          • Setting up review cycle
          • Setting up help desk
          • Adding extra functions
          • Fixing bugs
          • Managing interfaces with other systems
    • Topic 9
      • See seperate mindmap
  • Workflow and document management systems
    • Used when data arrives in different forms
    • Keeps track of electronically stored documents
    • Typical application: dealing with insurance claims

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