Meghan French


All the answers to the questions as not included in the main document.

All Answers have been selected from past mark schemes. (some may not have the full list of acceptable answers)

Topic One

  1. Size of organisation – Needs can range from a small LAN to a global WAN
    How the system will be used – What applications does the user require.
    Existing systems to integrate – New network must fit in with existing OS and protocols.
    Speed of processing – different parts of the organisation may have different requirements
  2. Ring: Advantages – data flows in one direction, no collisions of data, same level of access. Disadvantages – hard to locate faults, one break in cable stops working, impossible to run when +/- computers
    Star: Advantages –Fault tolerant, load tolerant, easy to add new computers without disturbing network, different speeds possible o different arms of network. Disadvantages – Higher cost (more cable), dependent on a central hub.
  3. Physical shape of network showing how they connect together.
  4. P: less money spent in set up and maintenance. C: opposite.
    P: All computers equal in network. C: One more important.
    P: No network manager needed and little knowledge needed C: network manager and specialist knowledge.
    P: Back-up done individually. C: All done centrally.
  5. Advantages: No cabling cost, global set of standard (use wifi worldwide)
    Disadvantages: limited range, transmission speed slower than cable
  6. Allows manager to manage user accounts by allocating access levels to users. Auditing is used to identify abuse of system by authorised staff. Auditing investigates unauthorised access.

Topic Two

  1. Advantages: D: pay when using B: monthly. D: available on any phone line B:Doesn’t tie up phone.
    Disadvantages: D: very slow and limits use, B: not available everywhere.
  2. Advantages: access email on move, easy to modify plans, can work in office or home.
    Disadvantages: upsets work balance, increased security problems, network overload at peak times
  3. A series of computers networked together each working on solving the same problem whilst sharing the same bandwidth. SETI: project for searching for life outside earth. In order to find life lots of computing power is needed to process.
    Advantages: Pass work to computers worldwide, improved performance as each computer can work on part of the data.
    Disadvantages: security issues of data as so far spread out, heavy reliance on networks and communications may not be reliable.
  4. Stock database, method of secure payment, customer database, email confirmation of order
  5. (Any two A and D’s from both)
    AC: no travelling, 24/7, price comparison for best deals, see customer reviews.
    DC: lack of social interaction, fake websites, cannot assess quality of goods before hand, copy cat websites to extract bank details.
    AB: international customer base, more efficient customer targeting, can be emailed enquiries, orders etc., fluid pricing.
    DB: need trained staff, increase in delivery vans, fewer shops on high street, credit card fraud.
  6. A set of standard rules that have been established to allow exchange of large files over the network. E.g. used for uploading a database of sales from one branch of the organisation to the head office. A: not limited on file size.
  7. Illegal downloading of music etc. (starting to prosecute), increased risk of stalking/cyber bullying and misuse of social media, no control over the people who can access the material on the internet (privacy/hacking), laws covering the production and distribution of **** (other countries where it is legal – cannot stop it), adults worry children will access **** accidently unless special software (netnanny) even with filter its hard to completely make sure material like this is excluded, internet is for everybody – no one owns it, little control over content on the internet government has started to control what can be seen (censorship/blacklist)
  8. Lots of private data on social media site, data can be abused and given widely, should there be access to personal data?
  9. Anyone could see your data you don’t wish to, no real way of checking you are who you say you are, paedophilia, stalking, grooming, employers checking social networking for employees can sack for ‘questionable behaviour’, some see as a valid use of freely available info others say invasion of privacy should not be available to employer (what if a teacher? Corrupting pupils?), can set security settings high, people not reading terms and conditions, selling data to third parties
  10. Identity theft, hacking, phishing scams.
  11. Easiest and quickest way of making friends, possible cultural benefit, emails avoid personal embarrassment that could arise when talking to people, long term relationships and marriages are happening, keep in contact with distant friends and family, share photos/videos, convos, easier to branch out from friendship groups

Topic Three

  1. Consistency of signposting and popup information – navigation around program clear and consistent, easy to follow.
    Online help files (built into software) – tool tips for users, don’t have to search through manuals
    Clear navigational structure – speeds things up if a similar route through programmes (if it’s clear) as users don’t have to learn new ways around system.
    House style/ethos – conveys who the organisation is and all documents feel the same
    Layout appropriate to task – bright colours for children, a standard ‘feel’ to software.
  2. N: priority easy of learning e.g. tutorials, easy access to help, step by step approach, GUI
    E: priority to get job done quickly, shortcuts, command line interface
    Increased number of ways of performing a task.
  3. Larger fonts, magnifying areas, Braille keyboards and printers, changing font colour and colour schemes
  4. Easy to read font, bright colours, minimal use of keyboard, visual prompts.

Topic Four

  1. Set of rules drawn up by managers and their employees.
  2. Consequences, authorisation, security defining rules about password disclosure, abiding current legislation
  3. Employee: A: no travel saves time and money, flexibility of work hours D: isolation, blurred boundaries between work and home.
    Employer: A: less likely staff to spend time off sick, fewer backup staff needed to be employed D: higher security risk as more sites, harder for managers to gauge process of workers.

Topic Five

  1. Data protection Act puts onus to keep this information secure because of its potential for misuse.
  2. Physical security, logical security, disciplinary procedures, operational procedure
  3. Potential risks, short term and long term consequences, likelihood of risk occurring, how equipped is the company to deal with threat.
  4. Natural disasters, accidental altering of data, fire, hacking, white collar crime
  5. Loss of reputation, legal action, loss of business and income, costs of recovering data
  6. Screening potential employees, define downloading procedures, establish disaster recovery plan, set up audit trails, log on procedures
  7. Cost: set up budget (can they replace all the hardware and software)
    Back-up procedures: what medium should be used, how often and where is back up kept
    Personnel, Responsibilities and Training: what response should staff make when disaster strikes. Screen employee, make one person responsible for taking back ups
  8. Introduce viruses, using company time for personal email, blackmail, computer fraud, using hardware e.g. printers for personal work

Topic Six

  1. a large collection of data items and links between them by using primary and foreign keys
  2. Hierarchy of passwords, access rights, data consistency, data redundancy, data independence, data integrity
  3. A staged mathematical process which removes repeated groups of data and inconsistencies
  4. has data stored on a number of computers at different locations but appears as one logical database.
    A: if one server fails the other servers can still be used, faster responce to user queries
    D: software more complex than a centralised database system, if data is transferred it presents more of a security risk from hackers.
  5. Lots of sites so important to ensure authorised users can only access the system (passwords to authorise users and regularly updated to increase level of security), viruses if linked to a local database (use a firewall and anti-viruses), data can be corrupted with regular transmitting between sites (checks put in place in order to ensure that the data that arrives is both secure and accurate
  6. A large collection of archived data used for decision making. Allows the company to see who has brought what items and then target them with special offers.
  7. Interrogating data to find patterns in the data which is stored in a warehouse. Analyse buying patterns; virgin media uses DM to segment and target customers who are most likely to buy new service/upgrade.

Topic Seven

  1. New skills required and old ones not required – retraining so not to become unemployed. More skilled jobs available.
    Organisational structure – boundaries between departments blurred and staff asked to take on new tasks and loose others e.g. sales person checking customers account balance.
    Work patterns are altered – reacting to a global market means operational 24/7, flexible hour’s
    internal procedures are changed – traditional jobs done quickly so they may have time to undertake new duties. These decisions can cause stress if uninvolved or not properly trained
  2. Fear of redundancy – less staff is needed to do the same amount od work once computers are introduced
    Changes in work patterns – shifts spilt or change of hours or night work
    Fear of reduction in status or job satisfaction – MIS means less middle managers are needed so departmental managers may lose power.
    Fear of looking ridiculous – established staff members may feel their lack of ICT skill and knowledge may make them look incompetent.
  3. Appropriate training/ retraining – to ensure all staff understand the new system and wondering what to do
    Keeping social groups together – less stress, work well together as a team
    Spell out the implications of the new system – help stop rumours, allow staff to express opinions
    Involvement in the development of the new system – so staff can have a system which is straight forward to use and suit their needs.

Topic Eight

  1. System that converts data from internal/external sources into information and resources designed to support the decisions of managers. E.g. looking at exam results to try and find strategies to improve their target figures.
  2. Accuracy and relevance of data – data used from the transaction systems that supplies data to the MIS must have passed data validation and verification.
    Flexibility of the system – allow individual planning and managers to set up their own queries quickly.
    Accessible to a wide range of users – can be used by managers who have a range of ICT skills and knowledge
    Give information when required – timing is critical as there is no point giving good information after the deadline
  3. Complexity of system, poor communication between professionals, lack of professional standards, inadequate initial analysis, inappropriate hardware and software.

Topic Nine

  1. Interviews with managers about current system, observation of how the current system operates, inspection of records studying the paper based information, questionnaires which are given out to workers to gather information


  2. User requirements should be identified, potential improvements/ benefits on the new system, identification of problems with the current system, cost benefits analysis of the new system, conclusions (is it worth proceeding)
  3. Design of input methods, design of house style/ethos, design of outputs, design of processes.
  4. Direct changeover; stopping using the old system one day and start using the new system the next day. A: requires fewer resources and is simple if nothing goes wrong. D: If the systems fails then it can be disastrous to the business.
    Parallel Changeover; old system runs alongside new system for a period of time until all the people involved with new system are happy it is working properly.
    A: used to minimise the risk in introducing a new ICT system. D: lots of unnecessary work and is expensive in people’s time/equipment/work.
  5. Corrective maintenance: bugs in the software which were not discovered during testing may need correcting. E.g. problems with reports not printing.
    Adaptive maintenance: software may need changing owing to changing needs of the business e.g. company expands so software needs altering to cope with increased number of users.
    Perfective maintenance: improving the software e.g. developing on-line tutorials and more help screens to help new staff members to learn the system.