- Taylor's ideas to improve efficieny became known as scienctific management. He set out a number of recommendations:
- Managers should study the task being carried out by employees and find the quickest method of doing each one. any unecessary tasks should be eliminated.
- The skills of each employee should be matched to the tasks that need to be done and each should be given specific instructions on what to do and how to do it.
- All workers should be supervised and controlled and those who don't work efficiently should be punished. - the 'stick'
- wrokers shoud be rewarded financially for being efficient. pay schemes should be designed to pay more to those who produce more - the 'carrot'. He believed that money motivates and managers should design a system which will allow them to be motivated and work more.
FW Taylor advantages + disadvantages
- Business can be more efficient as there's better organisation.
- Employees are trained rather than leaving them to train themselves giving them a more successful working enviroment.
- Treats workers like machines to be used an controlled causing conflict and resentment between employee and employer.
- Money is not the only motivator, and might not be the most important factor for some people.
- Taylor's ideas ignore the personal and social needs of individules at work.
- Some workers may resent the idea of being watched an timed.
Elton Mayo Hawthorne effect
- the Hawthorne studies involved varying working conditions such as lighting, hours worked, and measuring the impact on productivity.
- Mayo drew two different conculsions
- the importance of teamwork. A sense of team spirit and doig what the group expected, motivated the employees to work harder.
- The need for managers to take an interest in their workers. Managers who communicated closely with workers and showed an interest in themwould be rewarded withincreased productivity. - the Hawthorne effect.
- according to Mayo getting teamwork and good communication are essential for motivation.
Elton Mayo Hawthorne effect advantages and disadva
- Giving workers oppertunity to be involved in making decisions is more likely to motivate them.
- Better communication between employer and employees.
- Team spirit boosted productivity.
- only small groups were observed an experiments have failed to cofirm the findings.
- Workers won't always share the goals of managers, despite their best efforts.
- Maslow suggested all humans have the same types of needs which could be organised as a heirarchy of needs.
- 'PHYSIOLOGICAL NEEDS' is at the base; food, water, rest. Businesses can offer: decent pay to enable these needs to be met; acceptable working hours and conditions.
- 'Safety needs' security, absence of dance, freedom. Businesses can offer: high standards of health and safety, contracts.
- 'Love and belonging needs' friendship, being part of a group. Businesses can offer: teamwork, training, social facilities.
- 'Esteem needs' self respect, respect, confidence. Business can offer: promotion, status, reward for achievement.
- 'Self acctualisation' is at the top; achieving your full potential. Businesses can offer: training, oppertunities to develop, challanges.
According to maslow once these needs are met no other motivation is needed.
Abraham Maslow advantages and disadvantages
- Matching rewards to the needs of each employee is not practical
- It's impossible to generalise all humans, there are bound to be exceptions.
- Workers may not seek all levels of need within the workplace.
Frederick Herzberg - 'two factor theory'
- There are two sets of factors which are important in motivating workers. MOTIVATIONS + HYGIENE factors.
Motivators Hygiene factors
- sense of achievement - company policy
- recogition of effort - relationship with supervisors/collegues
- interesting work - workin conditions
- responsibility - pay/status/ secuirty
- oppertunity for promotion
- oppertunity for self improvement
Motivators have potential to motivate workers by the above.
hygiene factors can cause satisfaction and better working enviroment
Fredrick Herzberg 'two factor theory' Advantages +
- Good hygiene can stop workers from getting ill
- Dissatisfaction is prevented
- It will stop workers feeling that work is a painful expereince
- Theory can't be applied to all businesses.
- Low skilled jobs can't easily be enriched
- Some workers may not seek responsibility or advancement