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Business Revision People in organisations.
Social influence is a two way process:
How business activities impact on society?
How changes in society affect the business?
Labour turnover equals the number of employees leaving the company divided by
the average total number of employees.
Motivation and leadership.
A manager is an organiser, planner and controller with short term tactical objectives.
Leaders are motivational, figurehead, inspirational and have long term, strategic
Autocratic "Do what I say now".
Democratic "What does everyone think".
Paternalistic Leader acts as a "father" figure.
Laissez F'aire "Just get on with it".
Profit sharing Employees receive a proportion of the company's profits.
Share ownership Common incentive for senior managers who are given shares
in the company rather than a bonus or profit sharing scheme.
Fringe benefits Items an employee receives in addition to their normal wage or
Piecework Paying a worker per item they produce in a certain period of time.
Performance related pay This is paid to those employees who meet certain
Non financial methods:
Job enlargement is giving workers more tasks to do of a similar nature or
Job enrichment Giving employees more interesting, challenging and complex
Team working Team working is where employees work in groups or teams.
Allows employees to become more involved in decision making.
Based on McGregor work.
3 main goal s staff involvement, people development and generation of benefits.
Mayo Hawthorne studies
Herzberg and the two factor theory.
FW Taylor and the carrot and stick approach.
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Maslow and the hierarchy of human needs.
McGregor's theory is theory X and theory Y managers.
Peters company heroes.
Drucker management by objectives.
Herzberg's motivational theory.
The two factors were: firstly the factors which result in job satisfaction and the
other category were the factors that result is job dissatisfaction. Job
satisfaction factors were called motivators and dissatisfaction were called
hygiene factors, which were extrinsic factors.
McGregor's motivational theory:
Two types of managers, the theory X manager and the theory Y manager.…read more
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Chain of command is shorter.
Disadvantages of a narrow span of control:
Reduced freedom for subordinates.
It would increase number of managers required therefore increase costs of
recruitment and wages.
Matrix Structures A Matrix structure organisation contains teams of people created
from various sections of the business. These teams will be created for the purposes
of a specific project and will be led by a project manager.…read more