Analysis of Haydn's Symphony 104 - Movement 1 - Introduction

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Haydn Symphony 104 Analysis of First Movement
· Tutti (fanfare-like, gives weighted texture, and introduces the piece)
· a2 (doubled parts)
· Horn in D, restricted harmonic series therefore only plays in certain areas (due to tonal
ambiguity, it will fit, whether or not it is D major or minor.)
· Octave Texture (provides weight)
· Bar 3 onwards, the texture is homophonic. Instrumentation is reduced, creating a eery and
sparse texture
· Bar 7-8, octave, double dotted rhythm texture returns, however is closely related to the first two
bars. However, the horns are not playing as F and C are not in their harmonic series, due to its
lack of valves. This results in a weaker tutti than the first initial presentation.
· In terms of tempo, its very slow, which in an introduction is uncommon in the classical era. This
surprised it's audience.
· Absence of melody, you can't pin-point which instrument is the melodic leader.
· D to A, tonic-dominant progression, isolated notes that are played by the whole orchestra.
· Post Bar 3, the melody becomes more step-like (conjunct) and intervals become closer and the
bold leaps disappear until bar 7.
· Double dotted rhythms - these notes are seven-eights and one eight of a crotchet respectively,
producing a more angular and dramatic rhythm that a single dotted quaver and semiquaver
· The initial melodic device is a fanfare, which again returns in bar 6 by the string and wind,
played both times fortissimo.
· Initially, fortissimo. Bar 3, becomes piano, and returns bold and loud in bar 7. The transition
from fortissimo and piano induces dynamic balance.
· In terms of melody, bars 9-11 reveal a rising sequence and is used as a motif which repeated in
bar 11.
· Tonic-Dominant (I and V), absence of the third, which would reveal it's tonality (minor third or
major third). This creates tonal ambiguity.
· Bar 3 confirms the key of D minor. This indicated by chromatic harmony used, C#, which is
present both in the melodic and harmonic minor scales of D minor. The D minor creates a
sense of mystery.
· Bar 3 onwards, the double dotted rhythm from bar 1 is inverted and played piano below.
(Inversion of the motif initially created).
· Bar 6, introduces C natural, which indicates progression towards the dominant of F major
(relative major of D minor), which induces a perfect cadence, into the closely imitative motif of
bar 1.
· From Bar 9 onwards there is increased chromatic harmony, which gives tonal uncertainty,
especially as it is rising. The rising of sequences almost shows progression to resolution to
induce cadential progression.
· Bar 15, after the octave texture, unexpectedly introduces an E flat, which works it's way
towards a Neapolitan chord, which in turn leads to a slow moving Ic-V imperfect cadence,
followed by a silence. This ends the introduction.


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