Areas of technology that can be used to improve performance

1. Equipment, e.g. tennis rackets/cricket helmets
2. Clothing, e.g. lycra shorts/lightweight protection
3. Footwear, e.g. running shoes/football blades
4. Surfaces, e.g. all-weather/artificial pitches
5. Facilities, e.g. sport-specific venues/climate control,
6. Cameras, e.g. photo-finish/action replay
7. Computers, e.g. storage of information/match analysis
8. Software, e.g. technique analysis/dartfish

Advantages of technology for spectators

1. Increased experience at home through use of more cameras/player cam
2. Wider range of sports accessible/visible through technology eg glass walls in squash
3. All-weather surfaces – improved skill, truer bounce, multiple fixtures
4. Improved camera technology eg Hawkeye
5. On-screen information/interaction eg shots on target

Advantages of technology on performers

1. Increased knowledge of diet, eg carbo-loading
2. Supplementation eg creatine
3. Faster rehabilitation eg O2 tents, hypobaric chambers, ice baths
4. Improved testing to provide feedback on effectiveness of training programmes
5. Improved analysis of performance, eg match analysis, GPS data
6. Advances in stress management techniques
7. Equipment designed for individual needs
8. Facilities to recreate environments, eg. Humidity chambers
9. Instant feedback on performance, eg heart rate monitors
10. Advanced clothing/equipment design, eg lycra suits/prosthetics

Benefit of technology for coaches

1. Video analysis of matches to highlight strengths/weaknesses and or tactics/strategies
2. Video analysis of technique – dartfish
3. Detail analysis of success of nutrition/training programmes
4. New training techniques/equipment to improve performance
5. Specific/detailed recording of performances/split times

Disadvantages of technology

1. Could lead to increased injury or violence/shorter careers
2. e.g. from bladed boots / use of rugby shoulder pads / players bigger / fitter / more powerful
3. May lead to cheating / violence
4. e.g. drugs
5. Can disrupt or slow down ‘game’
6. e.g. time taken for playback
7. Could be an unfair advantage / be expensive / be dependent on sponsor
8. e.g. technology not equally available to all such as high tech bikes
9. Reduces traditional ethic or nature of sport / can lead to ‘win at all costs’ ethic
10. e.g. use of high tech equipment at junior or local level / TV or internet or modern media that has made sport a global ‘product’

Increased technology to help officials make the correct decision has improved the sporting event.


1. Ensure correct decisions are made/fair competition/less controversy/players more confident in decisions;
2. Helps officials communicate with each other;
3. Less pressure on official to make the final judgement/less post-match criticism;
4. Timing/measurement accurate;
5. Creates excitement in crowd waiting for decision/allows players to officially challenge decisions;


6. Officials using technology can still be wrong/technology can’t be used for everything/officials are an integral part of the sporting contest/over reliance on technology/lose respect of official’s decision being final;
7. Specific technology used must be accurate/high level of reliability ;
8. Changes the nature of the sport;
9. Cost limits use of technology at events/not consistent for all players or spectators;
10. Breaks in play can be disruptive for spectators if too


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