The demographic transition model

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Stage 1

High fluctuating 

  • High birth rate and high death rate
  • population growth is small 
  • limmited birth contorl
  • high infant mortality encouraging more children
  • children are the source of income 
  • religious reasons which encourage large families
  • famine
  • poor nutrition
  • disease 
  • undeveloped health facilities 
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Stage 2

Early expanding

  • High birth rate but falling death rate
  • population expanding rapidly
  • improved public health
  • better nutrition
  • lower infant mortality
  • improved medical provision
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Stage 3

Late expanding 

  • falling birth rate and continuing falling death rate
  • population growth slows down
  • greater access to education for women
  • smaller families
  • increased wealth
  • availibility of family planning
  • compulseray schooling making children more expensive 
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Stage 4

Low fluctuating 

  • low birth rate and low death rate 
  • population growth is small
  • fertility continues to fall
  • higher personal incomes
  • more women in the work force
  • more leisure 
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Stage 5

Decline 

  • Death rate exceeding birth rate
  • only in recent years
  • greater financial position of women
  • non traditional life styles e.g same sex relationships 
  • concern about population growth
  • cost of living is rising
  • population policies 
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