The Cold War - Causes of War, Tension, Anger / Significance

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Ideological Differences

RAISED SUSPICIONS

- BOTH THOUGHT OWN IDEAS WERE CORRECT - SUSPICIONS THAT THE OTHER WANTED TO IMPOSE IDEAS ON REST OF WORLD

TENSION - USA SUSPICIONS

- THOUGHT STALIN WANTED WORLD COMMUNISM BECAUSE HE TRIED TO GET AS MUCH TERRITORY FOR USSR AS HE COULD AFTER THE WAR

- FELT STALIN WAS TRYING TO STRENGTHEN SOVIET POSITION IN EUROPE - OCCUPYING AS MUCH OF GERMANY AS POSSIBLE, TAKING LAND FROM OTHER COUNTRIES THAT HAD BEEN OCCUPIED BY GERMANS 

TENSION - CAUSED DISAGREEMENT

- SOVIET CLAIMED THAT ALL STALIN WANTED TO DO WAS PROTECT USSR FROM FUTURE INVASION

- STALIN PARANOID OF INVASION - USA HAD DELAYED OPENING SECOND EUROPEAN FRONT DURING WAR TO RELIEVE PRESSURE ON USSR - STALIN THOUGHT IT WAS TO MAKE USSR EXHAUSTED FROM FIGHTING

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The Yalta and Potsdam Conferences

YALTA

LEAD TO BERLIN BLOCKADE

- ALTHOUGH BERLIN SPLIT, STALIN WAS GIVEN PART OF GERMANY WITH BERLIN IN IT

TENSION, ANGER - CAUSED BREAKDOWN IN TRUST

- ENFORCED THE RULE OF FREE ELECTIONS - STALIN BROKE THIS WHEN EXPANDING

POTSDAM

TENSION - HIGHLIGHTED END OF USSR/USA ALLIANCE

USA HAD SUCCESSFULLY TESTED ATOM BOMB AND FAILED TO INFORM STALIN - RAISED SUSPICIONS

- ROSEVELT HAD DIED IN APRIL 1945 - REPLACED BY TRUMAN - DID NOT GET ON WELL WITH STALIN

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The Atom Bomb

LEAD TO NUCLEAR ARMS RACE

- ALERTED STALIN TO USA NUCLEAR WEAPONS

- MADE STALIN START BUILDING OWN SUPPLY

TENSION, ANGER  - INCREASED STALINS SUSPICIONS

- STALIN HAD NOT BEEN TOLD ABOUT PLANNED USE ON JAPAN

- THOUGHT IT WAS MORE DIRECTED AT USSR THAN JAPAN, TO INTIMIDATE THEM

CHANGED TRUMAN'S ATTITUDE

- KNEW THEY HAD ADVANTAGE

- BECAME MORE CONFRONTATIONAL - ANGERED STALIN

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Soviet Expansion

CHANGED USA VIEW

- TRUMAN BEGAN TO THINK RECOVERY OF GERMANY WOULD LIMIT SOVIET EXPANSION - GERMANY GIVEN MARSHALL AID

TENSION - INCREASED SUSPICION

WEST THOUGHT IT WAS AGRESSIVE MOVE TO TAKE LAND

- LACK OF FREE ELECTIONS - WENT AGAINST YALTA AGREEMENT - ANGERED WEST

- GREECE AND TURKEY THREATENED BY COMMUNISTS - ANGERED WEST

- LEAD TO TRUMAN DOCTRINE AND MARSHALL AID - USA INVOLVED IN EUROPEAN AFFAIRS - ANGERED STALIN

ANGER - LEAD TO USA ENVOLVMENT IN EUROPE

- LEAD TO POLICY OF APPEASEMENT - MADE USA LOOK WEAK

- LEAD TO MARSHALL AID - ANGERED STALIN

EUROPE PHYSICALLY DIVIDED

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The Truman Doctrine

MADE IT CLEAR THAT USA WOULD TRY TO STOP COMMUNISM

- CLEAR THAT USA WOULD NOT RESORT TO ISOLATIONISM

ANGER - HELPED TO STOP SPREAD OF COMMUNISM

- POLICY OF CONTAINMENT - COMMUNISM RESTRICTED TO EXISTING BOUNDRIES

- GREECE AND TURKEY PROTECTED FROM COMMUNIST THREAT

LEAD TO COMECON

- ENCOURAGED COUNTRIES TO GO AGAINST WEST - GAVE STALIN MORE CONTROL

ANGER AND TENSION

- MANY COMMUNISTS FELT IT A DECLORATION OF WAR

- ANGERED STALIN - DID NOT WANT EUROPE TO REGENERATE

- ECONOMICALLY DIVIDED EAST AND WEST

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The Marshall Plan

TENSION - INCREASED SUSPICIONS

- COMMUNISTS THOUGHT IT DOLLAR IMPERIALISM

- BRIBE TO MAKE COUNTRIES DEPENDANT ON USA AND JOIN THEM AGAINST USSR

ANGER - STOPPED POVERTY

- SEEN AS WAY OF HOLDING BACK COMMUNISM - THRIVED ON POVERTY

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The Berlin Blockade and Airlift

USA AND WEST PROVED THEY WOULD STAND UP TO USSR

- USA PUT IN EFFORT TO RESIST SOVIET EXPANSION

ENDED POSSIBILITY OF SPEEDY UNIFICATION OF GERMANY

– 1949 - DIVIDED INTO PRO-WEST REPUBLIC OF WEST GERMANY AND PRO-SOVIET COMMUNIST EAST GERMANY

LEAD TO FORMATION OF NATO

- SEEN AS VICTORY IN WEST

- CONVINCED USA THAT THE WEST NEEDED COMMON DEFENSE STRATEGY TO OPPOSE ANY ACTS OF AGGRESSION

SET PATTERN FOR FUTURE

- FIRST MAJOR CRISIS OF COLD WAR 

- SET PATTERN OF THREATS, NOT WAR BUT INCREASED HOSTILITY BETWEEN EAST AND WEST

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North Atlantic Treaty Organisation

PREPARING FOR COLD WAR TO BECOME HOT

- USA COULD BUILD AIR BASES IN WESTERN EUROPE

- EQUIPPED WITH NUCLEAR BOMBS THAT WOULD BE STATIONED AND READY TO USE IN CASE OF AGGRESSION

INCREASED STALINS SUSPICIONS

- ARGUED THAT IT WAS AN AGGRESSIVE ACT TOWARDS USSR, NOT FOR DEFENCE OF STATES

ESTABLISHED CLEAR 'TEAMS'

- MADE ALL NON-COMMUNIST COUNTRIES CLUB TOGETHER AGAINST USSR

- CLEARER PHYSICAL DIVIDE IN EUROPE

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The Nuclear Arms Race

MAJOR THEME OF COLD WAR

- USA AND USSR FIGHTING TO HAVE MORE ADVANCED NUCLEAR WEAPONS

- NEVER INFLICTED PHYSICAL HARM, BUT ALWAYS A THREAT

INCREASED FEARAND TENSION

- MORE ADVANCED WEAPONS - MORE POWERFUL BOMBS - MORE FEAR

- COUNTRIES MORE ON EDGE

INCREASED COMPETITION

- COMPETITION TO BUILD UP THE BEST RECOURCES

- USA AND USSR ACTING AGAINST EACHOTHER

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The Korean War

EXTENDED COLD WAR TO FAR EAST

  • COLD WAR SPREADING - BECOMING BIGGER
  • CHINA HELPED COMMUNIST REBELS INTO VIETNAM AGAINST FRENCH

PROVED TRUMAN PREPARED TO STICK TO DOCTRINE

  • INTERVENED - STUCK TO DOCTRINE AGRREING TO HELP WEST
  • STUCK TO PRINCIPLE OF CONTAINING COMMUNISM

EMPHASISED NATURE OF WAR

- DIDN'T WANT IT TO BECOME HOT - MACARHTUR DISMISSED AFTER SUGGESTING USE OF ATOM BOMB - THEME OF EMPTY THREATS AND NO ACTUAL VIOLENCE

USSR ACTING AGAINST USA AND EUROPE

- SUPPLIED WEAPONS TO CHINA

MARKED EMERGANCE OF COMMUNIST CHINA AS WORLD POWER

- CHINA BECAME FRIENDLY WITH USSR - USSR MORE POWERFUL - MORE THREATENING

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The Warsaw Pact

MARKED REVIVAL OF USSR CONCERN

- GERMANY JOINED NATO IN 1955

- RAISED CONCERN ABOUT RE'EMERGENCE OF GERMANY

ESTABLISHED CLEAR 'TEAMS'

- PHYSICAL DIVIDE BETWEEN COMMUNIST AND ANTI-COMMUNIST COUNTRIES

- TWO RIVAL ALLIANCES

GAVE USSR CONTROL

- ALL FORCES OF PACT PLACED UNDER SOVIET COMMANDER

- PACT DOMINATED BY USSR

MOVEMENT TOWARDS COLD WAR BECOMING HOT

- PERMITTED SOVIET TROOPS TO BE STATIONED IN COUNRIES IN PACT FOR PURPOSE OF DEFENCE

- AGGRESSIVE - SUGGESTED WAR

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The Death of Stalin

EASED TENSION 

- USA WILLING TO NEGOTIATE - REGARDED STALIN AS MAIN CAUSE OF COLD WAR

- SOVIETS AGREED TO SIGN AUSTRIAN STATE TREATY - ENDED OCCUPATION OF AUSTRIA

NEW LEADER

- KRUSCHEV - KEEN TO MAKE FRESH START WITH WEST

- PEACEFUL CO-EXISTANCE EMERGED

SUMMIT CONFERENCE IN GENEVA 1955

- SEEN AS TURNING POINT IN COLD WAR

- EAST AND WEST MEETING AND TALKING TOGETHER - NOT FIGHTING OR ARGUING

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The Hungarian Uprising

PROVED THAT NO SUPPORT WOULD COME FROM THE WEST

- UN LOOKED INTO DETAILS OF UPRISING - NO EVIDENCE OF POPULAR SUPPORT FOR NEW GOVERNMENT LIKE USSR CLAIMED - STILL DID NOTHING

- WEST HAD IGNORED NAGI'S APPEAL FOR HELP

WEST SAW THAT PACEFUL CO-EXISTANCE HAD ITS LIMITS

- HAD NOT STOPPED VIOLENT CRUSHING OF HUNGARIAN GOVERNMENTS BY SOVIETS

- BETWEEN 25,000 AND 30,000 AND 700 SOVIET TROOPS KILLED - STILL PREPARED TO ESTABLISH AUTHORITY

MARKED STALEMATE IN COLD WAR - WEST DIDN'T INTERFERE WITH SOVIET ACTIVITIES IN EAST

WEST HAD NOT RESPONDED TO NAGI'S APPEAL

- WEST STAYING OUT OF CHAOS IN EAST - NOT PREPARED TO RESIST EXPANSION TO THAT EXTENT

- POLICY OF CONTAINMENT HAD LIMITS - EACH SIDE OF EUROPE MORE INDEPENDANT

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The Space Race

PREVENTED COLD WAR BECOMING HOT

- MUTUALLY ASSURED DESTRUCTION

- ACTED AS NUCLEAR DETTERENT

- BOTH POWERS HAD BUILT UP WEAPONS CAPABLE OF DESTROYING EACHOTHER IF ONE ATTACKED

- LESS LIKELY TO ATTACK - IF ONE COUNTRY STRIKE THEY WILL BE DESTROYED IN RETURN

STILL INCREASED FEAR, TENSION AND COMPETITION

- COUNTRIES RACING WITH EACHOTHER TO KEEP BALANCE IN DEVELOPMENT OF WEAPONS

- TENSIONS - COUNTRIES MORE ON EDGE

- USA AND USSR STILL ACTING AGAINST EACHOTHER

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U2 Crisis

SHATTERED HOPES OF AN END TO THE COLD WAR

- ENDED PARIS SUMMIT MEETING - PEACE TREATY GOING TO BE SIGNED BETWEEN USSR AND GERMANY

- USA U2 PLANE SHOT DOWN BY USSR AND PILOTS CAPTURED - SHATTERED HOPES - KRUSCHEV KNEW US HAD BEEN SPYING

- EISENHOWER REFUSED TO APOLOGISE - CLAIMED THEY NEEDED TO PROTECT SELVES - KRUSCHEV STORMED OUT OF SUMMIT MEETING

ENDED PEACEFUL CO-EXISTANCE

TENSION AND ARGUMENTS BETWEEN COUNTRIES

- PROVED THAT USA HAD BEEN SPYING - NOT LIVING IN PEACE

- USA HAD CONCERNED THEMSELVES WITH TROUBLES IN EAST - NO STALEMATE

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