GCSE Cold War Notes

Notes for the Cold War. I'm sorry - I didn't manage to finish all the sections especially near the end. Good Luck for you exams! :)

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  • Created by: Vanessa
  • Created on: 21-06-12 14:53
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Start of the Cold War
February 4-12: Yalta Conference
May 8: Germany surrenders ­ VE day
July: Potsdam Conference
August 6: Atomic Bomb on Hiroshima
August 8: USSR declare war on Japan
August 9: Atomic Bomb on Nagasaki
August 14: Japan surrenders ­ End of WWII
August 15: Emperor surrender broadcast ­ VJ day
February 9: Stalin's Hostile Speech
February 22: Long Telegram from Kennan
March 5: Iron Curtain Speech ­ "Sinews of Peace"
July 1: Operation Crossroads with Test Able
July 25: America's Test Baker
September 27: Novikov's Telegram
January 1: Bizonia formed
March 12: Truman Doctrine
June 5: Marshall Plan
October 5: COMINFORM founded
February 22: Communist Coup in Czechoslovakia
March 17: Brussels Pact (Mutual Defence)
June 18: New currency ­ Deutschmark
June: Trizonia formed
June 24: Berlin Blockade starts
January 25: COMECON
April 4: NATO
May 12: Berlin Blockade lifted
May 23: Federal Republic of Germany (West)
August 29: USSR detonates first atomic bomb

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October 1: China becomes Communist
October 12: German Democratic Republic (East)
April 14: NSC-68 finalised in USA
June 25: Korean War begins
November 1: USA develops H-bomb
March 5: Stalin dies ­ Malenkov takes over
July: Korean War ends
December: USSR develops H-bomb
September 8: SEATO founded
April: Imre Nagy sacked
May 9: West Germany joins NATO
May 15: Khrushchev signs Austrian State Treaty
February 25: Khrushchev ­ `Secret Speech`
Oct 23 ­ Nov 10: Hungarian Uprising crushed…read more

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Key Features &
How it Changed Relationships
Yalta Conference [4-12 Feb 1945]
Key Features
Purpose: plan the end of the war
Agreed that Nazi war criminals would be hunted down and tried in an international court of
Agreed that Communism and Capitalism can coexist ­ USSR would have its `sphere of
influence' in Eastern Europe
Disagreed about Germany's reparation costs
Disagreed about government in Poland
o Stalin wanted a Communist one so that it would serve as a buffer state against
o But…read more

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How Did it Change Relationships?
Leaders were still cooperating + reaching decisions
BUT ­ increased tensions
o Truman angry ­ Stalin didn't hold free elections ­ seemed like a Communist takeover
in the East
o Stalin angry ­ was unaware of America's atomic bomb ­ now they had a significant
advantage over USSR ­ intimidating + creates atmosphere of fear from nuclear war
Nuclear Arms Race
Key Features
Began in August 1945 (during Potsdam Conference) when USA used `Little Boy', which killed
78,000, and `Fat…read more

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How Did it Change Relationships?
Both countries believe the other is preparing for war ­ so increases their own preparation
Faster development of arms
Atmosphere of fear created
Truman Doctrine [5 March 1946]
Key Features
A promise that USA would help any country threatened by Communism
USA would send troops + economic resources to any govt.
Communism should be contained
Caused by Greece Events
o Allowed Greek govt.…read more

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Key Features
Creation caused by Marshall Plan
Purpose: Coordinate activities of Communist Parties in Europe + controlled by USSR
o Satellite States
o Stalin extending his control to prevent USA gaining influence
Enforced Russian-style Communism
o Encouraged introduction of collectivisation + command economy
Ensure loyalty of Eastern European govt.…read more

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Marshall Aid
Key Features
Committed $13bill to rebuild shattered economies in EU
o Aid came as goods, machinery, fertilisers
Seventeen nations received $13,750,000,000
o Recovered more quickly than Eastern EU countries
o Propaganda usage ­ capitalist better than communist
Italy received $600 million (ally of Germany)
o Stalin resented USA for helping German allies ­ feared an invasion
o Already had suspicions that delayed invasion in France 1944 was because USA was
letting German crush USSR ­ intensified suspicions
Stalin forced Eastern Bloc countries to…read more

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Even brought in coal
o Peaked in 16th-17th April ­ 1,400 planes carried 13,000 tonnes in 24hrs
Stalin called off blockade on 12th May 1949
o Wasn't working
o A plane landed in West Berlin every 90 seconds
How Did it Change Relationships?
Propaganda success for USA but failure for USSR
More east Germans escaping to the West
o Led to refugee crisis in 1960s
o 1949-60 2.…read more

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Key Features
Established in 1949 ­ caused by talks opened by Ernest Bevin on 6th July 1948
o Bevin feared a war with USSR
o Opened talks about a transatlantic defence treaty
USA felt threatened by USSR military power in EU so countered it with NATO
o Allowed USA to station troops + aircraft in member's countries for defence
o Members:
USA, Britain, France, Luxembourg, Norway, Denmark, Italy, Portugal, Canada,
Belgium, Iceland, the Netherlands
If any member was attacked ­ it was an attack…read more

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Austrian State Treaty
Key Features
In May 1955, Khrushchev signed the Austrian State Treaty
o Ended occupation of Red Army
o Austria was now an independent sovereign state
How Did it Change Relationships?
Showed USA, that Khrushchev wasn't trying to take over ­ more peaceful than Stalin
o Reduced tensions
But Khrushchev wanted to prove that Communism was better
o Led to Space Race in late 1950s
o Led to Arms Race
Hungary Under Stalin
Key Features
1949 ­ Cominform imposed an oppressive regime on…read more


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