- Created by: georgeparasol
- Created on: 29-05-19 11:05
TEHERAN CONFERENCE (1943)
- WWI meant that they had a common enemy.
- STALIN vs. CHURCHILL
- Soviet vs. Japan WAR
- United Nations Organisations
- East Poland now part of the Soviet Union
- Stalin wanted complete control over Poland to prevent future invasion.
YALTA CONFERENCE (1945)
- Germany was close to defeat
- STALIN <3 ROOSEVELT
- Divide Berlin into 4
- Allow liberated Germany to have free elections
- Soviet Union to have more influence over Eastern Europe
- How much compensation Germany pays
- Stalin wated Soviet Control to be more strong- especially in Poland. (they persuaded him to allow free slections)
POTSDAM CONFERENCE (1945)
- The war ended July/August
- SU moved into East Europe
- US revealed the atom bomb during the conference.
- STALIN vs. TRUMAN
- Changes in Germany = de-militarise, re-establish democracy, ban nazis, get them to pay compensation.
- Most of the compensaton go to the SU
- Poland frontier move west (more SU control)
- Stalin wanted more but the West didnt want Germany to be treated as before.
- Free elections in germany
- US started a policy against SU
OUTCOMES OF THE CONFERENCES
ALLIES HAVE DIFFERENCES
TRUMAN DISTRUSTS THE SOVIET UNION
KENNAN ---> TRUMAN
- SU see capitalism as a threat to communism
- SU are building military power
- PEACE between the two doesnt seem possible right now
NOVIKOV ---> USA
- USA wanted world domination and are building military strength
- SU are the only country to stand up to USA
- USA are preparing for WAR against SU
THE IRON CURTAIN
Nickname was given by churchill after WWI
- The boarder between the SU and The West
This hid progress from the West, allowed industrailisation, stopped interference fro the West but churchill was the ony one to get involved.
COMMUNIST INFORMATION BUREAU
In response to the Truman Doctrine to organise Eastern European countries & their communist government.
INTRODUCED SOVIET STYLE ECONOMIC POLICIES
This beneffited the USSR as they used this to PURGE any member who disagreed with the policies.
TRUMAN DOCTRINE (1947)
This promised to help any country against soviet advance
contained communism but didnt push it back. (CONTAINMENT)
- Military force was provided for Turkey + Greece
- The two sides believed in opposite political ideas and were trying to stop the others' ideas from expanding.
MARSHALL AID (1947)
Truman saw Europe as a "breeding ground" for communism.
This was vital for countries recovering from the war.
This also provided future trading partners for Truman.
(MARSHALL= secretary of state)
This was in response to marshall plan - it financially supported Eastern Europe.
Countries relied on the UUSR.
This benefitted the USSR as they controlled economy, allowed access to resources, allowd them to use countries to gain production.
NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANISATION
Formed an alliance between western countries. this provided protection and defense.
UK / US / FRANCE
ARTICLE 5 = "an attack against one is an attack against all"
WEST GERMANY JOINED NATO IN 1955 -this is what lead to the formation of the warsaw pact.
SIGNIFICANCE OF NATO
THE WEST WERE NOT WILLING TO ACCEPT SOVIET AGGRESSION
BECAUSE OF THIS SU INCREASED STRENGTH, THIS LED TO WARSAW PACT
SU NOW HAD A MILITARY ALLIANCE
THE ONLY THING SEPARATING THEM WAS THE IRON CURTAIN
WARSAW PACT (1955)
The Soviet Union's responce to NATO, a defense formed under Krushchev.
A military alliance of communist states used to ocntrol communist governemtns
The red army was based in communist countries.
Dissolved in 1191 when the soviet union collapsed.
KRUSHCHEV'S SPEECH (1956)
Khrushchev’s secret speech was made to the Communist Party in the Soviet Union.
He heavily criticised the brutality of Stalin’s rule and introduced ’de-Stalinisation’.
This also proposed ‘peaceful coexistence’with the west- this eased any previous tension.
Eastern European satellite states began to demand changes and tried to weaken Soviet influence. He could not allow changes because he feared that change could result in the end of communism in eastern Europe, and the destruction of the buffer against the West.
He was not prepared to compromise the security of the Soviet Union.
CAUSES OF THE HUNGARIAN UPRISING (1956/7)
SU invaded Hungary at the end of WW2, installing a communist government led by Rakosi.
Rakosi ruled Hungary as a brutal dictator. With the help of the secret police Rakosi imprisoned 200,000 political opponents and killed over 2000 of them.
He also allowed the USSR to control Hungary’s economy through Comecon.
This meant Hungary couldn’t trade with the West, leading to a shortage of goods and a low standard of living.
By the early 1950s Rakosi had become v unpopular in Hungary.
THE HUNGARIAN UPRISING (1956/7)
Due to his unpopularity, Krushchev replaced Rakosi with Nagy.
- Nagy was a modernising communist.
- He tried to introduce changes like free elections, trade with with Germany and withdrawing Hungary from the Warsaw Pact.
Krushchev didnt like his intruding behaviour so sent 200 000 SU troops and 1000 tanks into hungary to stop them.
The West didn't help when asked by the rebels.
The USSR crushed the Hungarian Uprising
OUTCOMES OF THE HUNGARIAN UPRISING
30 000 Hungarians were killed and 200 000 fled Hungary as refugees.
Nagy was replaced by communist hardliner Kadar.
He had Nagy executed.
The SU warned other satellite states about trying to break away from the Soviet Union or Warsaw Pact
The West were horrified but not enough to take military action against the SU- it might lead to war
The West became more determined to contain communism.
KENNEDY IS THE NEW US LEADER
CAUSES OF THE BERLIN CRISIS (1961)
- '49-'61 = 4 million East Germans fled to the West
- SU believed that the West were using West Berlin for espionage
- Germans were dissatisfied with economical and political conditoons - this let to a forced collectivisation.
- There was a shortage of consumer goods.
- 1959 = Krushchev visited America to hold a summit, they discussed Berlin and nuclear weapons
- 1960 = SU announced that they shot down a U-2 spy plane
- BITTER EXCHANGES BETWEEN THE TWO
- West Germany joined NATO in 1955
- ^^ a threat to Soviet Union ^^
- West Berlin = "a fishbon stuck in my throat" (Krushchev)
- 20,000 were now leaving East Berlin every month - some were profesSionals e.g mathmeticians and doctors
- East Germany faced the threat of COLLAPSE
- 1961 summit = Krushchev/Kennedy - Truman Doctrine was reasserted and US raised spending to $3.5bil
THE BERLIN CRISIS (1961)
Nennedy is the american president now
In August the USSR built a concrete wall between East and West Berlin.
They made it clear that anyone caught trying to cross the wall would be shot.
In the first year of the wall being there, 41 East Berliners were shot.
The wall separated families and friends. East Berliners saw it as a sign of their inferiority.
The West did nothing to stop the building of the wall, not wanting to risk war
OUTCOMES OF THE BERLIN CRISIS
Khrushchev saw the wall as a victory
‘Ich bin ein Berliner’ speech = Kennedy expressed togetherness with the Berliners ("i too am a berliner")
The West didnt want to do anything to stop the building of the wall as any other solution might cause war.
The speech angered the SU as they thought Kennedy was causing trouble.
BAY OF PIGS (1961)
The US trained 1500 Cuban exhiles in order to reinvade.
They did this to stop the country becoming communist.
This failed. Castro (cuban leader) is popular in their country.
They were lead to defeat as they decided not to attack the Cuban airforce. This was a huge embarrassment for kennedy .
CAUSES OF THE CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS (1962)
Bad relations between USA/Cuba.
Bay of Pigs pushed Castro much closer to the SU. (Cuba now communist)
Khrushchev began to send military supplies to Cuba as defense.
September 1962 = the USSR installed nuclear missiles.
October 1962 = a U2 spy plane took photographs of Cuba which showed that the USSR were building intermediate range missile bases. Their IRBMs could hit almost all US cities and were clearly offensive
Cuba was posing a threat to the USA’s security.
THE CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS (1962)
13 DAYS ON THE BRINK OF NUCLEAR WAR.
USA placed a naval blockade around Cuba to prevent any Soviets delivering military materials.
A fleet of submarines were made and over 150 ICBMs were made ready for combat.
Kennedy informed Khrushchev that the Soviet convoy of ships approaching Cuba would be stopped and inspected for military materials.
SU turned its ships around to avoid confrontation. Kennedy demanded the removal of all missiles from Cuba, and said the US would invade Cuba if the SU refused.
Khrushchev sent a letter to Kennedy offering to remove the missiles if the blockade was removed and the USA promised not to invade Cuba. The next day he sent a tougher letter promising to remove the missiles if the USA removed their missiles from Turkey (SU border).
Kennedy decided to ignore the second letter, and accepted the offer made in the first. Khrushchev accepted the offer. In a secret deal, the US promised to remove its missiles from Turkey.
OUTCOMES OF THE CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS
PARTIAL TEST BAN TREATY (1963) = they agreed to stop testing nuclear material in the atmosphere.
Krushchev faced criticism from SU and Chines leader Mao Zedong- he was sacked in 1964.
A telephone line was set up between Washington and Moscow - this ensured communication between the two sides
NUCLEAR NON-PROLIFERATION TREATY (1968) = stop the spread of nuclear development, now countries couldnt hep each other.
BREZHNEV IS THE NEW USSR LEADER
CAUSES OF PRAGUE SPRING (1968-9)
•Novotny, a hard line communist- very unpopular. => CZECH LEADER
•The czech economy was suffering in the 60's- decline is standards.
•Novotny was replaced by Dubcek, a reforming communist. This move was supported by Brezhnev.
•Some Czechs thought the West would help if they were to stand up to Moscow.
PRAGUE SPRING (1968-9)
1967 = The Czechs responded to Novotny's rule with sit ins, demos etc. => peaceful protest against Novotny
New leader Dubeck proposed an action plan that would improve economy and allow free speech. (The SU were worried). Dubcek promised the people ‘socialism with a human face’, and launched a series of reforms known as the Prague Spring.
The reforms aimed to improve standard of living, allow for greater freedom and democracy, and introduce trade with West Germany.
Dubcek tried to reassure that his changes wouldn’t threaten the USSR and that Czechoslovakia wouldn’t leave the Warsaw Pact. Brezhnev was unconvinced, he was worried that Czechoslovakia (which had the strongest industry in the SU) would leave the WP and allow NATO to move in.
Brezhnev though the reforms and increased contact with the West might spread across the satellite states. The Soviet Bloc and the WP might collapse, and the USSR would no longer have its buffer zone.The other Warsaw Pact countries objected to the reforms.
500,000 troops from the WP countries invaded Czechoslovakia.
OUTCOMES OF PRAGUE SPRING
- There was only little violent protest due to the consequences of the hungarian uprising.
- Russian tanks were attacked with petrol bombs, and one student, Jan Palach, set himself on fire as a protest against Soviet occupation.
- Dubeck was arrested and taken to moscow. he was replaced by Husak- reverted Czechoslovakia to strict communist rule.
- Temporarily led to worsened East/West relations. It showed the West that the USSR would not permit reform or opposition in the satellite states…but the West weren’t prepared to intervene and so risk the outbreak of war.
- USA was busy in Vietnam.
- BREZHNEV DOCTRINE = stressed that a threat to one communist country was a threat to all, and force would be used wherever necessary to keep the satellite states firmly under Soviet control.
- Warsaw Pact suffered, Romania refused to send troops to invade and took astance against the USSR. Albania did the same and left the WP.
NIXON IS THE US PRESIDENT
A relaxation of tension between the superpowers.
Reasons for Detente:
1.To reduce the threat of nuclear war. The Cuban Missiles Crisis had shown how dangerous the Cold War was.
2.To increase trade. The US economy was being crippled by the huge cost of the war in Vietnam. The USSR had low living standards and poor industrial efficiency
3. USA wanted pull out of Vietnam. Nixon thought that if he could improve trade and technology links with the USSR, Brezhnev might persuade North Vietnam to negotiate an end to the war. This idea was called ‘linkage’.
SALT I (1972)
Begun in 1969.
The agreement limited the number of ICBMs and ABMs on both sides.
Significant because it showed clear recognition of the need to protect the nuclear balance by ensuring that neither side could consider itself immune from retaliation (MAD theory).
The agreement did not reduce existing stocks of nuclear weapons or MIRVs (a missile which carries several nuclear warheads directed at different targets)
MOSCOW VISIT (1972)
The first time that a US President had visited Moscow.
Nixon met with Brezhnev, and agreed:
- To limit and eventually end the arms race, the ultimate objective being complete disarmament
- To develop cooperation in economic, scientific, technical and cultural fields.
1975 SPACE LINKUP
US and Soviet astronauts met up in space, exchanging a symbolic handshake.
Tensions appeared to be on the mend.
HELSINKI AGREEMENTS (1975)
35 countries signed these.
The high point of détente
- The West accepted Soviet influence in Estern Europe
- West/East Germany officially recognised each other.
- SU agreed to buy US grain and to export oil to the West.
- All countries agreed to improve human rights, freedom of speech, of religion and travel.
CARTER IS THE US PRESIDENT
SALT II (1979)
Started in 1974 and the treaty was signed in 1979.
It was agreed to make further reductions in nuclear weapons to no more than 2400.
SALT II was not agreed by the American Congress because they were worried about SU troops in Cuba. Their worry was proved when the USSR invaded Afghanistan.
WHY DETENTE COLLAPSED
- The West thought that the USSR was not taking human rights seriously enough. Inside the USSR, opponents of the communist government criticised travel restrictions and prison conditions.
- Andrei Sakharov wanted a worldwide ban on nuclear weapons, an end to the Cold War and the introduction of democracy in the USSR. He was put under house arrest by the Soviet government.
- Carter annoyed Brezhnev by trying to link reductions in weapons with the issue of human rights. Brezhnev saw this as the Us interfering with the USSR.
- SU Afghanistan invasion
CAUSES OF THE AFGHANISTAN INVASION (1979)
- Brezhnev was worried about the growing power of Islamic fundamentalism led by the Mujahideen, they wanted to overthrow Amin’s government and set up a Muslim state.
- SU contained 30 million Muslims. Brezhnev was concerned that Muslims in the SU would start supporting the Mujahideen and would demand changes to the way the SU was run (eg. introduction of Islamic law, or even independence from the USSR).
- Islamic fundamentalism was a big threat to the Soviet communist system.
- The USSR also wanted to get rid of Amin, and replace him with a president who would be friendlier to the USSR.
- Amin was seen as a threat to the Soviet Union’s interests in the Middle-East. Despite receiving Soviet military aid, was not friendly with the Soviet Union, and wanted to build relations with the USA.
- Afghanistan bordered SU; If Amin improved links with the USA, then US influence in Afghanistan would threaten the Soviet Union’s security, as well as their oil interests in the Persian Gulf region.
AFGHANISTAN INVASION (1979)
50,000+ Soviet troops invaded.
Amin was murdered, and a new government was set up in Kabul, led by Babrak Karmal.
(Karmal was a previous Afghan leader who had been in exile in the Su.)
They knew Karmal would be friendly towards SU.
When Amin was murdered, many Afghan soldiers deserted to join the Mujahideen. They didn’t support Karmal.
Karmal’s position was dependent on Soviet military support.
Brezhnev told the world that the Soviet invasion had been necessary to restore order
He told Carter that SU troops had been invited in by the Afghan government to protect it, and that troops would be withdrawn as soon as the situation stabilised. (They weren't withdrawn until 1989.)
OUTCOMES OF THE INVASION
- CARTER DOCTINE = USA would use military force if necessary to defend its national interests in the Persian-Gulf region. (protected oil routes to the USA and Western Europe)
SU's influence threatened USA’s oil supply & Carter saw the Soviet invasion as a potential stepping stone to Soviet control of the Middle-East.
- The USA promised to support the Mujahideen. The Mujahideen were carrying out guerrilla warfare against Soviet troops, to win back control of their country.
- Carter cut trade between the USA and the Soviet Union
Boycott of the Moscow Olympic Games (1980) = The USOC agreed, and so did 61 other countries.
- This worsened relations even more.
- Some of those countries who boycotted the Olympics held an alternative event, called the ‘Liberty Bell Classic’.
RAEGAN IS THE NEW US PRESIDANT
NEW US DEFENSE PROGRAMME
- Will cost over a trillion dollars
The neutron bomb = designed to kill lots of people in one go, but do little damage to property or infrastructures
Cruise Missiles = designed to deliver a large warhead over long distances with high accuracy without being detected by radar. NATO agreed to Cruise Missiles being placed in Western Europe.
NEW VIEW OF NUCLEAR WAR:
-80's = Superpowers accepted MAD
- nuclear weapons made each side more secure and less likely to attack because there could be no winner in a nuclear war.
New Weapons = Reagan accepted a new theory: NUTS
- specific targets could be picked out, and so destruction would be limited. This suggested there could be a winner in a nuclear war.
START MEETINGS (1982)
The talks were aiming to destroy existing nuclear weapons.
Reagan knew that he was approaching talks from a position of strength because of the USSR's economic problems.
STAR WARS (1983)
Develop a satellite anti-missile system that would orbit the earth.
The aim was to make it impossible for Soviet missiles to reach US targets, by creating a huge laser shield in space.
Andropov (NEW SOVIET LEADER) accused the USA of coming up with a plan on how to unleash nuclear war in the hope of winning it.
The USSR would have to spend even more money on armaments in order to compete with the USA—and this could cause the Soviet economy to collapse
This put America at a major advantage.
SU BOYCOTT OF LA OLYMPICS (1984)
Chernenko accused the USA of using the games for political purposes—ie. to promote capitalism/the West and make communism/the East look bad.
He also claimed that security for Soviet athletes was inadequate.
The USA saw the boycott as retaliation for their boycott of the Moscow 1980 Olympics. The Soviet boycott was supported by members of the Warsaw Pact.
The boycotting nations held their own alternative, called the Friendship Games.
NEW SOVIET LEADER CHERENKO DIES
NEW SU LEADER GORBACHEV
SOVIET UNION'S WEALTH
Increased cost due to:
• The arms race
• Keeping control of the satellite states ( Brezhnev Doctrine 1968)
Gorbachev saw a need to:
• End the arms race by reaching arms agreements with the USA (dismantling weapons and not developing new ones)
• Pull out of Afghanistan
•Abandon the Brezhnev Doctrine
Gorbachev also realised that Soviet industry was not producing enough money. There was no competition between industries, as they were all state controlled rather than privately owned, and no incentives to increase output.
Output was low, and the quality of goods shoddy. This led to a poor standard of living in communist states which led to unrest among the people.
GORBACHEVS REFORMS (1985)
Perestroika (restructuring) = changing some economic policies to allow more competition and more incentives to produce goods.
- Gorbachev believed that the Su could only survive if it relaxed economic controls (such as those imposed by Comecon).
Glasnost (openness) = restoring people’s faith in government by ending corruption.
- Gorbachev believed that people should not be punished for simply disagreeing with the government. There should be more open political debate.
As part of glasnost and perestroika, Gorbachev carried out reforms:
- Releasing dissidents from jail
- Publishing books that were previously banned
- Being open with the Soviet people about the atrocities committed when Stalin was in power
- Introducing some aspects of a free economy (eg. trading for private profit)
THE SUMMITS (1985-7)
- To discuss issues without their advisers
- Nothing concrete was decided, but the two countries to speed up arms talks and be more active on issues of human rights.
- The significance of this summit meeting is that the two leaders had been able to be friendly with each other, despite poor relations between the Superpowers in the 1980s.
- This meeting collapsed after Reagan refused to give up Star Wars (SDI).
- The Intermediate Nuclear Forces Treaty (INF) = Superpowers agree to destroy both nuclear and conventional weapons of an intermediate range.
- By 1991, over 2500 such weapons had been destroyed. Under the treaty, both nations were allowed to inspect each other’s weapons stocks to check that weapons had been destroyed.
- Soviet Union’s withdrawal of troops from Afghanistan
- The INF was particularly important in convincing the USA that the Soviet Union no longer posed a major threat.
REJECTION OF THE BREZHNEV DOCTRINE (1988)
The USSR were no longer prepared to use military force over satellite states.
SINATRA DOCTRINE (1989)
- Members of the Warsaw Pact could make changes to their own countries without SU interferance.
THE OFFICIAL END OF THE COLD WAR
ANOUNCED BY BUSH AND GORBACHEV AT THE MALTA SUMMIT
COLLAPSE OF COMMUNISM IN EASTERN EUROPE
- A range of political parties was formed
- Free elections were planned.
- Hungary opened its borders with Austria. This meant there was now a way for East Germans to move to West Germany
- Gorbachev started to withdraw Soviet troops from Hungary.
- Demonstrations occurred calling for democracy and free elections.
- Gorbachev visited East Germany and assured that the Su would not interfere.
- Boarders between East and West open. => the people began to dismantle the Berlin Wall.
Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia declared themselves independent.
- Added to the Soviet Union by Stalin in 1945.
- There were fears that the Soviet Union was about to disintegrate, and opposition to Gorbachev mounted.
MOSCOW SUMMIT (1990)
The Conventional Armed Forces in Europe Treaty (CFE)
Signed by NATO and Warsaw Pact members.
It reduced the number of tanks, missiles, aircraft and other forms of non-nuclear (conventional) hardware held by the states who signed.
START TALKS (1990/1)
Summit meeting in Washington.
Bush / Gorbachev.
- Discussed Strategic Arms Limitations and finally signed the START I Treaty in 1991.
- It called for both sides to reduce their nuclear forces over a period of 7 years by up to 35%
- Gorbachev and Bush signed the treaty with pens made from scrapped missiles!
SOVIET UNION COLLAPSES
Gorbachev resigns in december 1991
the Soviet Union splits into indepedant states.