Arab-Israeli notes (whole of 20th century)

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  • Created on: 25-03-12 12:37
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ArabIsraeli conflict
=Conflict of 2 peoples seeking to establish a homeland in the same place
Effect of the creation of Israel on the Palestinian people, on
neighbouring countries and on Jewish communities in Arab
countries
14 May 1948
State of Israel proclaimed by David Ben Gurion
British mandate ended, gave up responsibility > Resolution 181 UN divided
the area known as Palestine into 2 (partition)
Jewish= 1/3 pop. Gained 60% of land
Arab= 2/3 pop. Gained 40% land
Palestinian people:
Lost their country to Zionists
Became refugees were either forced off their land or threatened
massacre at Dier Yassin by members of Irgun.
Majority went to Jordan, others to Syria, Egypt some remained in
areas known as occupied territories from 1967 war as Israel
controlled these areas Golan Heights, Gaza strip, West Bank.
Since formation of Israel have been fighting a war of liberation to
regain their land from an expansionist colonial state
Triggered a campaign of militia and guerrilla attacks on Jewish
militants, civilians and villages. Israelis in retaliation formed their
own militant groups= Haganah (later to become Israeli army), Stern
gang and Irgun
Neighbouring countries:
Declared war immediately
Opposed Israel's existence, refused to sign any peace treaties with
Israel and refused to recognise it
Jewish communities in Arab countries:
All Jewish people, of any ethnicity, background or faction had the
"right of return" to the state of Israel. This led to 687000 Jewish
immigrants by 1951
Jews were expelled or left Muslim countries
In 1948 Jews of Europe made up 75%, by 1961 Jews of Europe
represented only 55%
Created problems for Israel as European and nonEuropean Jews
were so different in language, customs and culture, danger that 2
Israel's would be created
15 May 1948 1949
"War of Independence" (Jewish)
"The disaster" (Arab)
Cause= creation of state of Israel

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Page 2

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Arab world= Egypt, Jordan, Iraq, Syria and Lebanon aimed at pushing
the Jews "into the sea"
Israelis stunning victory against Arabs gained Negev Desert, west
Jerusalem, land to Lebanese border and west of river Jordan
Arabs "Catastrophe" Palestinian homeland taken
Organization on Israel's part unified as opposed to the disunity of
the Arab forces and timely Czech arms supplies allowed Israel to win
the war.…read more

Page 3

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In response to Nasser nationalising Suez Canal, B F determined to
recapture canal and overthrow Nasser, Israel saw merit in taking
advantage
Conspiracy with B F and Israel
Israel occupied Sinai, Gaza and Sharm el sheikh but all returned> no
land gained, lost face as conspired with western imperialists
B, F big losers, 2nd rate status clear to world
Nasser big winner, great Arab hero
Situation between Arab world and Israel largely unchanged
Six Day war
510 June 1967
Nasser under pressure "to do something"…read more

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Creation, aims, methods and effectiveness of the Palestinian
Liberation Organisation (PLO) from 1964
Creation of PLO
Formed in 1964 by Nasser to control the fedayeen groups as he
feared they would drag Egypt into another war with Israel
Aspirations of Palestinians were being ignored by Arabs and
suppressed by Israel
Made up of 8 separate groups became an army of refugees
dominant groups included Al Fatah (means conquest, established by
Arafat in 1959 as Palestinians became disillusioned with the little help
they were receiving from…read more

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PLO moved to Lebanon
1973 onwards PLO more moderate methods considered talk of
Palestinian mini state emerged
Methods moved more to politics than terrorism recognising Israel's
right to exist and renouncing terrorism
Effectiveness
By late 1980's PLO was legitimised internationally by recognition from
many states.…read more

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Success/ Failure
US: stopped spread of communism, US Jews happy, Suez Canal
remained open.
USSR: Muslims unhappy, oil continued to go to US, failed to use this
as a ground for negotiations, US resolve tested
UN: failed its first objective, PLO accepted resolutions 242 and 338 in
1988
1973 Yom Kippur war
October 1973
Anwar Sadat wanted to break the "log jam" in negotiations, and gain
legitimacy as leader of Arab world.…read more

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Sinai, normalisation
of relations between Egypt and Israel, all achieved by 1982
Israel> major success as most powerful Arab country no longer a
threat
Arab world> treaty denounced, Sadat= traitor, was assassinated
October 1981 by extremist Islamic group
Causes of the events leading to the Israeli invasion of Lebanon in
1982 and the course of the war
Causes
Lebanon had a problem maintaining a balance between Muslims and
Christians > this was further complicated due to the presence of
320 000 Palestinians who had fled…read more

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Reasons and consequences of Jewish migration to Israel and
Jewish settlements in Jerusalem and the West Bank
Jewish migration
European Jews: after WWII 100 000 displaced persons made their
way to Israel, had to live in transit camps for many years, were well
educated
Arabic Jews: creation of Israel, Jews in nearby Arab states joined
"right of return" by 1957 500 000 had arrived from Iran, Iraq,
Lebanon, Syria and Yemen.…read more

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