Hitler's rise to power, 1919-33

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  • Created on: 09-06-19 19:43

Hitler and the early growth of the party

Hitler's and early growth of the party

Adolf Hitler was born in Austria in 1889. He moved to Munich in 1913 and became obsessed with all things German. He was a soldier in the WW1 and his experience confirmed his views that Germany had a special destiny. He was shocked with Germany's defeat and the outcome of T.O.V.

Formation of the Nazi Party:

  • DAP (German Worker's Party) was formed in 1919 around the time of freikorps and led by Anton Drexler.
  • They had anti-semitic, nationalist and anti-marxist view which attracted Hitler.
  • Party's program declared hatred for the Treaty of Versailles.
  • In 1920 the name of the party was changed to Nationalist Social German Worker's Party (NSDAP)  infamously known as Nazi. 
  • 1921 Hitler became a leader and saw himself as an evangelist for the party.
  • Swastika became distinctive and well known to represent Nazi's value.
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Hitler and the early growth of the party (pt2)

  • 1921, SA was formed and was made up of ex-freikorps.
  • Hess, Goering, Streicher and Rohm were selected as some of his party supporters

What they stood for:

  • Rearm Germany
  • Abolish Treaty of Versailles
  • Destroy the Weimar Republic
  • Conquer Lebensraum ('living space')
  • Crush communism
  • Use terror/violence to defeat terror/violence
  • The government being strong and controlling
  • Germans to only citizens to keep pure race
  • The government should take over important national industries
  • Germans to be looked after by the government
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Hitler and the early growth of the party (pt3)

The 25-point programme was written by Hitler and Drexler in 1920. It opposed the Weimar politicans who agreed to the TOV; democracy which they saw as weak; and Jews who they felt undermined German's economy and it included the following points:

  • increase pensions for elderly
  • nationalise industries
  • make sure citizens have equal rights and duties
  • Opportunities for higher education for hard-working germans
  • Mothers and infants being protected and stop children working; make laws for compulsory sports.

The Sturmabteiling (SA)

  • Also known as stormtroopers that were a paramilitary force that were made up unemployed ex-soldiers
  • formed in August 1921 by Hitler but led by Ernst Rohm.
  • They enforced violence: disrupting opposition meetings and controlled crowds that
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Hitler and the early growth of the party (pt4)

opposed Hitler.

  • They were nicknamed 'Brownshirts' because they wore brown uniforms.
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The Munich Putsch and its aftermath

The Munich Putsch

Hitler attempted to overthrow the Weimar government in November 1923. It was known to be The Munich Putsch, after this date and up to 1928, the Nazi Party stuggled to get support.

Long-term term reasons for the putsch:

  • 'stab in the back'
  • Reparations
  • The loss of germany's colonies
  • Resent of weimar government, particurlarly the Bavarian governments.

Medium-term reasons for the putsch:

  • Mussolini's influence on Hitler after the Fascists, a right-wing party in Italy marched on Rome in 1922, forcing democratic government to accept him as leader.

Short-term reasons for the putsch:

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The Munich Putsch and its aftermath (pt2)

  • Hyperinflation
  • The Ruhr invasion in 1923
  • Underestimation of Hitler's support

Events:

  • 8th Nov 1923 - Hitler with 600 SA entered a beerhall in Munich where the Bavarian government had a meeting.
  • At gunpoint, Hitler forced government leaders to support him and Rohm took over the local police and army headquarters.
  • Ludendorff, behind Hitler's back, let the government leaders go.
  • 9th Nov 1923 - Hitler's gathered with 1000 SA and 2000 volunteer governments and marched on Munich town centre to declare himself President of Germany.
  • The group was met by state police, where someone opened fire causing much chaos. This resulted in Ludendorff, Rohm and Streicher to be arrested
  • 11th Nov 1923 - Hitler was arrested after being found hiding at a friend's house.

Consequences:

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The Munich Putsch and its aftermath (pt3)

  • The NSDAP was banned after the Putsch failed miserably because of lack of support.
  • Hitler used his trial to publicise his views.
  • Hitler published his bestsellers book called Mein Kamf ('My Struggle') which outlined his political ideas as well as his particular views on Jews.
  • Made Hitler realise the party needed to rethink its tactics by being more organised in order to win support nationally as violence and force wasn't enough.

Bamberg Conference 1926

  • An organised conference to address splits between the socialist and nationalist wings of the Nazi movement.
  • Hitler's power as leader was secured.
  • His vision of Nazism taken forward.
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Growth in support, 1929-32

Growth in support, 1929-32

Wall Street Crash 1929

  • US companies lost billions of dollars in value overnight. Many banks and businesses were ruined and worldwide depression resulted.
  • Lead the US to stop loaning money to Germany and demanded all loans to be repaid.
  • German businesses: had to pay back tax loans, recieved no US investments and paid increased taxes to government
  • German government: couldn't borrow US money, refused to print more money, increased taxes, made cuts in unemployment benefit and in wages of workers. A lead to unemployment 
  • German people: businesses reduced staff or closed, loss of jobs from millions of workers and farmers, young people affected by unemployment and families suffered terrible poverty.
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Growth in support, 1929-32 (pt2)

The Hitler and SA appeal:

  • He was a popular figure and seen as a strong potential leader
  • A powerful and a passionate speaker
  • The party adopted modern technology, e.g. used aeroplanes when delivering multiple speeches
  • Had a military past who promised to scrap the Treaty of Versailles 
  • SA made the impression that they were organised. disciplined and reliable because of their uniform.
  • Their intimidation tactics made them appear strong and controlling during economic and social turmoil.
  • Had a stronger army than the communists with 400,000 stormtroopers and communists with 130,000

Hitler benefitted from the depression because of these factors: economic problems, unemployment, dissatisfaction with weak Weimar government and increased membership of extreme left and right wing parties.

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Growth in support, 1929-32 (pt3)

Support for the Communist Party grew during this period but the Nazi Party grew faster. The working classes living in cities supported the communists who wanted them to protect their jobs and wages. 

  • Business people: communism did not support private ownership - loss of business; helped Nazis invest money for propaganda in their campaign, Hitler persuaded them that economic crisis would be solved.
  • Middle-class: Nazi could protect them from communists stealing land, property and business they owned; solve the economic crisis and return Germany to traditional values.
  • Farmers: Nazi's changed their views on land and said they would protect them from communism - said that they were no longer going to take land (in the 25-point programme); they gained 60% of votes in some rural areas.
  • Youth: Nazi's rallies were energetic and exciting which attracted the youth; Hitler's speeches were stirring and promised more than traditional parties which made the youth more optimistic about the future.
  • Women: some saw Nazi's as still sexist, seen as having an important role.
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Hitler becoming Chancellor,1933

Nazis seemed to know what was the best for families.

Political developments in 1932

The four key players:

  • Paul von Hidenburg - hero of the WW1 and President of the Weimar Republic.
  • Heinrich Bruning - the Chancellor.
  • General Franze von Papen - the politician and friend of Hindenburg.
  • Kurt von Schleicher - the army in general.

May 1932:

  • Bruning resigned after losing all politcal support because he failed to deal with the depression, applied an ban on the SA and the ** and announced a controversial plan to buy-up land to house the unemployed.

 

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Hitler becoming Chancellor,1933 (pt2)

  • Von Papen replaced Bruning - he is put forward by von Schleicher.
  • Von Scheicher had been planning a coalition between right-wing supporters and Nazis, which Hitler agreed to if SA ban was removed.
  • The coalition takes power

July 1932

  • Further elections occured - there is widespread fighting between the communists and the Nazis.
  • The Nazi share of the vote increases from 18% in 1930 to 38%.
  • Hitler demands that he be made Chancellor - Hidenburg refuses.

November 1932

  • Further election
  • Von Schliecher warns Hidenburg that if von Papen stays as Chancellor there will be civil war and von Papen resigns.
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Hitler becoming Chancellor,1933 (pt3)

December 1932

  • Von Schleicher becomes Chancellor.

January 1933

  • Von Schleicher lacked any real political support or the Nazis.
  • He persuaded Hidenburg that could the head of a military dictatorship.
  • Hidenburg refuses.
  • Von Papen persuaded Hidenburg to appoint Hitler as Chancellor to avoid von Schleicher's military dictatorship.
  • He suggested that he should become Vice-Chancellor so that he can keep a check on Hitler.
  • Hitler finally becomes Chancellor

Key points:

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Hitler becoming Chancellor,1933 (pt4)

  • Hidenburg referred Hitler as 'vulgar and jump-ed up corporal'
  • Von Papen was proven wrong when he thought the Nazi's popularity would decline.
  • Von Papen and Hidenburg thought they could control Hitler - von Papen said he had Hitler 'in his pocket' and that in 2 months they will have him 'pushed into a corner that'll he will squeak like a mouse'

There were only 2 Nazis in Hitler's cabinet of 12 - 10 were chosen by von Papen and Hidenburg.

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