HISTORY - GERMANY

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WEIMAR REPUBLIC:1919-33 > Paul Von Hindenburg

-1918 army collapse 

-Kaiser abdicated + fled to the Netherlands (9th Nov)

-Germany became a republic

-Provisional government agree to armistice > stop fighting WW1

-Not welcomed by all - unrest left/right wing extremist groups

-constituent assembly met first in Weimar (Southern)

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WEAKNESSES - WEIMAR REPUBLIC

(1) Appointment of Chancellor by the President- leader of largest party (1930 Hindenburg appointed  a Chancellor not  of the largest party > rule Article 48).                                                                                                                                          

(2) Frequent changes of government- 9 elections; 2 each 1923/32 - weak+unstable.                                                        

(3) Power of the President - In times of crisis use article 48 to declare 'state of emergency' - Presidential .

(4) System of voting- Proportional Representation (PR) elect Reichstag members > Coalation government-  parties seats in Reichstag are directly proportional to votes cast, difficult for any 1 part to achieve majority.

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TREATY OF VERSAILLES: 1919 > LAMB

-government no choice/negotiation sign (28th June) horrified + humiliated 440 clauses:

-(L)and - Territorial terms: 13% land; 6mil citizens; colonial possesions LOST.

-(A)rmy - Military terms: 100,000 men; forbidden to possess: tanks,heavy guns,aircraft,submarines. Ships must be less than 1000 tonnes, Rhineland demilitarised.

-(M)oney - Financial terms: clause 231 ( war guilt ) accept full responsibility - pay reparations for damage (6600 million pounds)

-(B)lame - Political terms: forbidden to join League of Nations + accept blame

*GAVE AMMUNITION TO OPPONENTS OF WEIMAR > EXTREMIST PARTIES 

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ORIGIN - NAZI PARTY

-1919 Anton Drexler founded German workers party (DAP) Munich, Bavaria

-Right-wing, nationalistic party stressed ideal of pure German people

-Adolf Hitler - army intelligence unit attended meeting , liked + invited to join

-Organisational ability recognised - in charge of party's propoganda machine

-Hitler + Drexler wrote '25- point programme' political manifesto (1920)

-1921 Hitler replaced Drexler 'National Socialist German workers party' (NSDAP)

-Adopted title 'Fuhrer' (leader) , Swastika party symbol + raised arm salute

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EARLY GROWTH NAZI PARTY: 1920=1100 > 1923=55,000

-1921 Hitler set up Sturmabteilung (SA) led by Ernst Rohm

-'Brownshirts'  and 'Stormtroopers'

-Armed ex-military protect Nazi political speakers from rival groups

-political atmosphere chaos + distruption

-1919 attempted communist revolution (Spartacist Rising)

-1920 attempted right wing takeover in Berlin (Kapp Putsch)

-Failed 2nd reperation payment > French/Belgium troops march to Ruhr control coal fieds

-German workers protest/strike - government supply wages  > print money

-1923 currency collapse + hyper inflation

*HITLER THOUGHT IT WAS THE RIGHT TIME TO SIEZE POWER: BAVARIAN CAPITAL, MUNICH + BERLIN MARCH

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MUNICH PUTSCH: 8-9 NOVEMBER 1923

-Eve 8th Nov , Hitler + 600 SA men burst into public meeting Burgerbrau beer, Munich

-Adressed by Gustav Von Kahr, Bavarian Chief minister

-Gunpoint - Von Kahr + Von Lossow agreed to help planned takeover, later informed police Hitler's plan

-Following morning, 2000 sa men marched through Munich + met by police

-Clash: shots fired; 16 Nazis + 4 police killed; Hitler escaped + arrested 2 days later

-Hitlers main supporter General Ludendroff, put on trail + Nazi party banned

-Trail started Feb 1924 > 1 month, gave  Hitler National publicity

-Criticised 'November Criminals' , Treaty of Versailles + 'Jewish Bolsheviks' 

-Ludendorff was let off , Hitler found guilty of treason + sentanced 5 years in Londsberg prison > only served 9 months

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IMPORTANCE MUNICH PUTSCH:

-Hitler reflected in prison, win power - change stratagy

-Instead of armed rising, build upoun publicity: majority polls, elected into office through ballot box

-Completed autobiograpgy 'Mein Kampf' (My Struggle)  - political views:

(1) Volsgemeinschaft: creation of people's community

(2) Treaty of versailles: abolition + reversal of terms

(3) Social Darwinism: some races superior to others, German 'master race' , Aryans superior to 'inferor races' - jews 'race pollutors'

(4) Anti-semitism: all ills in society caused by Jews - eliminated

(5) Anti - communist: socialist + communist policies 'stabbed Germany in the back'  1918 agree to armistice 'November Criminals'

(6) Lebensraum - obtain living space - Easter Europe 'Greater Germany' German-speaking people united one nation

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DEVELOPMENT OF NAZI PARTY: 1924 - 29

-Hitler realised ; ban on Nazi party lifted ; reorganised/restablished leadership

-Created on bodygaurd Schutzstaffel (SS)

-Introduced Hitler Jugend (youth) - attract younger members

-used every oppurtunity to attack Weimar weaknesses (support from all classes)

-1925=27,000 > 1928=100,000

-12 Seats Reichstag 1928 general election , 32 - 1924

-lack success - economic recovery 1924-29 by Chancellor + foreign minister

-Gustav Stressmen persuaded not to vote for extreme parties

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IMPACT WALL-STREET CRASH + GREAT DEPRESSION

-ECONOMIC RECOVERY RELIANT ON US LOANS - US BANKS RECALLED

(1) Demand for consumer goods fell sharply +  firms were forced to lay off workers

(2) International trade contract + exports fell rapidly

(3) Factories closed + unemployment rose sharply 6.2 million 1932

(4) Unable to pay rent/ homeless living on streets

(5) 4/10 without jobs

WEIMAR POLITICIANS DID TOO LITTLE, TOO LATE  > TURN TO EXTREMIST PARTIES, SUPPORT COMMUNIST + NAZIS ROSE SHARPLY GENERAL ELECTION 1930

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END OF PARLIAMENTARY DEMOCRACY: THE COALATION BRUN

-Harsh economic climate - severe problems weak coalation government Weimar - collapsed

-3 general elections 1930-32

-March 30th President Hindenburg appointed Heinrich Bruning of center party as Chancellor. he lacked majority + relied on article 48

-Reichstag used less - article 48 - end parliamentary democracy

-Bruning more unpopular - cut unemployment benefits 'hunger Chancellor'

-May 1932 Bruning resigned

-July general election - Nazis polled highest vote 230 seats 37 %

-Nazi largest party in Reichstag

 

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COALATIONS OF VON PAPEN AND VON SCHLEICHER:

-March 1932 Hitler against Hindenburg Presidential elections

-Polled 13.4 against 19.3 million - Hindenburg

-Hitler well known figure - politics success July election

-Hitler not appointed chancellor, Hindenburg despised him + appointed leader Franz Von Papen

-Franz Von Papen unable to gain working majority

-Election Nov Nazi vote fell - 196 seats, largest party in Reichstag

-Hitler demanded Chancellor > denied

-Hindenburg appointed General Von Scheicher, Minister of Defence

-Von Scheicher unable to gain working majority

--Jan 1933 Von Papen persuaded Hindenburg to appoint Nazi-Nationalist government Hitler = chancellor -Von Papen = vice chancellor - control Hitler 3/11 cabinet seats Nazi-30th January 1933 Adolf Hitler - Chancellor of Germany - power by legal + democratic means

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REASONS FOR NAZI ELECTORAL SUCCESS:

*1932 Nazi largest party in Reichstag - electoral support from all parts of society:

-Impact Depression: created political + economic conditions, millions switch vote extreme parties, moderate parties formed coalations unable to tackle worsening economic conditions, Nazi offer readical action

-Appeal of Hitler: gifted public speaker, captivated audiences, projected 'Messiah' image, saviour solve problems, private plane tours - deliver speeches to mass audiences, offer all society, simple message - scapegoats - blaming Jews + Communists problems

-Use of Propoganda: Dr Joseph Gobels was in charge of the party propoganda machine: mass rallies, huge poster campaigns, radio + cinema > Nazi message

-Financial support: finance electoral campaigns , large scale financial backing - big industrialists: Thyssen , Krupp , Bosch. Industrialsts feared commuinist takeover + concerned growth trade union power - Hitler promised to deal with both fears

-SA use - protect Nazi speakers - election meetings + distrupt meetings of political rivals - communists 'bully boy thugs' street fights - political opposition

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HITLER PROMISE DIFFERENT SECTIONS SOCIETY:

-Women: emphasise family  life + moral values, + children welfare

-Big industrialists: protect against communism + curb growth of powerfull trade unions

-Middle classes (mittelstand) : protect against communism; allow keep wealth + status; restore Germany's status

-Working class: tackle unemployment ; provide decent wage ; protect worker's rights

-Farmers : reverse decline in agricultural prices 

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