How was Hitler able to become Chancellor by 1933? (LIMP PAPER)

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  • How was Hitler able to become Chancellor in 1933? (LIMP PAPER)
    • Long term Bitterness
      • German Outrage- When Germany heard about the T of V, they called it 'Diktat' which means 'Imposed Settlement' and were outraged they had been forced to sign it,
      • German reaction-When the T of V was given, some refused to sign it and others wanted to restart the war. So it was with great difficulty that the President got the Reichstag to agree to sign it and the way tne German representatives were forced to sign it made it worse,
      • The Germans hated that they were/they had BRAT:
        • Blamed for the war as 'To say such a thing would be a lie'
        • Reparations as they said B and F were trying to starve their children,
        • Army that was small as they felt helpless and weak,
        • Territory loss as it lost a tenth of its land and forced Germans to live in other countries,
    • Programmes
      • Start- The German workers party was formed in 1919 and Hitler joined and soon became the leader. His speeches gave people someone to blame like the allies, Jews etc
      • Organisation-At first there were a number of people involved in running it but Hitler soon became the sole boss and was the unquestioned leader,
      • In the 1920s, 33% of skilled workers had joined, 19% of Businessmen and 11% of farmers,
    • Ineffective Constitution
      • Article 48 gave the President the power of degree, so the power to pass laws without the Reichstag in 'times of emergency'-dictator,
      • The Proportional Voting led to 28 parties which made it impossible to get a majority in the Reichstag and led to frequent changes in the Gov.
        • During 1919-33, there were 20 different coalition Gov.
        • The longest lasting Gov. lasted only 2 years
        • it casued many to lose faith in the new democratic system,
      • The German states had too much power and sometimes ignored the Gov.
      • The Army led by General Hans was not fully under the Gov. control so failed to support the Gov. at the Kapp Putsch in 1923
      • Many Gov. officials were right winged so wanted the Gov. destroyed. After the Kapp Putsch, 700 rebels were trialed but only 1 went to prison,
    • Attacks on other parties
      • The **, SA and the Gestapo ensured all non-Nazi views were acted on ruthlessly,
      • The SA, Brownshirts, threatened political opponents and encouraged an atmosphere of chaos,
      • Meetings of other parties were disrupted, members were beaten up and fires were stared and Communists were blamed,
    • Money
      • The financial support of wealthy businessmen gave him the money to support his propaganda and election campaigns,
    • Propaganda
      • He put Josef Goebbels in charge of propaganda,
      • He believe the best way to get support was to appeal to their feelings and not their arguments,
      • Nazi's spread their ideas through posters, leaflets, newspapers and the Nazi message was 'ein Volk, ein Reich, ein Fuhrer' which means 'One people, one Nation, one leader'
      • Nazi Posters targeted specific audiences like people from the countryside and cities and stressed simple facts to hammer home the main Nazi message,
    • Economic Depression
      • After the Wall Street Crash in 1929, the US called it loans to Germany and the German economy collapsed,
      • Numbers of unemployed grew and people starved. They wanted someone to  blamed and Hitler provided
      • The Germand turned to the Nazis as they were desperate and this is when the number of Nazi seats grew from 12 in 1928 to 230 in July 1932
    • Personal Qualities
      • He was a brilliant speaker,
      • A good and organised politician
      • He was a driven, stable man who thought God had called him to become a dictator and rule the world
      • His self-belief persuaded people to believe in him,
    • Recruited by Hindenburg
      • In November 1932, the Nazi's failed to get a majority in the Reichstag. The votes fell from 230 to 196
      • Franz von Papen was the Chancellor and with Hindenburg they passed laws with Article 48 but they offered Hitler vice-Chancellor If he agreed to support them,
      • Hitler refused vice-Chancellor and demanded to be Chancellor so on the 30th January 1933, Hindenburg made Hitler Chancellor as they thought they could control him,
  • German Outrage- When Germany heard about the T of V, they called it 'Diktat' which means 'Imposed Settlement' and were outraged they had been forced to sign it,


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