Define the problem of evil
Refers to the issue arising from the simultaneous existence of an omnipotent/omniescent/ omni-benevolent (that is, the classical theist) God, and the existence of moral/natural evil in the world.
The problem of evil stands as an argument against the existence of God.
In response to this argument, theodicies have been created to reconcile evil with the existence of the classical theist God.
Logical vs Evidential problem of evil
Logical-deductive: The existence of evil is logically incompatible with the classical theist idea of God (as opposed to deist).
Mackie: Used the inconsistent triad to demonstrate this: 1) God is omni-benevolent 2) God is omnipotent 3) evil exists. Only 2 premises can be true simultaneously. To hold all three at once is a logical contradiction. This is a reformulation of Greek Epicurus' argument.
Evidential- inductive: The existence of evil is strong evidence that the clasical theist God does not exist.