- Created by: mrevv
- Created on: 31-10-19 16:17
- Appointed to Wessex by Cnut, and killed Alfred
- In 1060, only Wessex was not ruled by a Godwine.
- Thier estates were £7000, the King only had 5000.
- They built up housecarls and followers from granting land.
- He averted disaster by acting as king-maker to Ed, marrying him and Edith
- Ed brought in Norman hepers to possibly rig Eusatce of Boulogne's attack.
- Ed initially said he would only restore Godwine if he returned Alfred alive to him.
- After Godwine landed an army in London, Ed conceded.
- He blamed his Norman friends, who he had to banish.
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Swein and Harold
- 1046, Swein kidnapped the abbess of Leominster, and Ed exiled him and took his lands.
- 1049, he returned, tried to make peace then kidnapped his cousin Beorn.
- Killed Beorn and declared a 'Nithing' by the earls.
- Godwine supported his return, but Harold sided with the Witan.
- 1050, Swein allowed back, not restored to lands and told to go on pilgramage- he died on the way.
- Harold was described as a deputy king.
- Ed knew little about the political system or supporters.
- The Godwines were powerful, but they also helped stabalise England.
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The Welsh wars
- The Vita Edwardi says Harold was strong, handsome, and confident.
- He was formidable, willing to comprimise, and a good leader.
- 1055, Gryffdd ad Llewelyn declared himself king of Wales
- He invaded the Welsh marches with Elfgar, a banished earl
- They invaded Hereford next- Edward sent Harold.
- Harold restored Elfgar and gave Gryffdd territory for Ed's overlordship and peace.
- 1056, Gryffdd defeated the bishop of Hereford.
- When Harold attacked he had to concede more terriory and see Gryffdd as king.
- Elfgar and Magnus of Norway joined Gryffdd- Magnus was bribed and Elfgar restored.
- 1062, Harold carried out a suprise attack and in 1063, a campaign with Tostig.
- Living off the land, the English wore leather instead of armour and used javelins.
- They broke the Welsh morale and Gryffdd's men turned against him and kileld him.
- This shows Harold's ability, and that of the English army.
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Harold in Normandy
- 1064, Harold went to France- Poitiers says to offer the throne.
- He was shipwrecked at Ponthieu and rescued by William
- He swore loyalty to William and to help him become king
- They campaigned in Brittany together.
- But, why didn't Ed summon William to court?
- Not mentioned in the Vita or ASC.
- Possibly added to frame Harold as a perjerer and userper and to win Papal support.
- Harold could have asked for William's support or relased his nephews and brother.
- He could have sworn it under pressure (didn't count)
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- Upon Siward's death Tostig became earl of Northumbria
- He was unpopular as a southerner- Siward was a viking.
- He introduced unpopular laws, taxes and a bishop of Durham.
- He was over-zealous in his punishments to Southernise them.
- He also killed his rival Gospatric until a rebellion formed.
- Morcar and his rebels had peace talks with Harold.
- Tostig was exiled and Morcar became earl.
- Harold acted in the country's interests but this lost him a huge ally.
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