Anglo-Saxons

  • Created by: Hbrandxx
  • Created on: 10-04-18 11:46

1. Late Anglo-Saxon England 1053-66

How was Anglo-Saxon England governed?

The power of the King

  • Commander of army, head of Church, chief arbiter of justice + supreme decision maker.
  • Possessed rights to mint coins- main economic function was to ensure integrity of currency.
  • Exercised power through royal household where the chancery issued royal writs.
  • Housecarls formed King's bodyguard and King held a royal court/witan and had advisors.
  • Household was itinerant which limited its capacity; often overpowered by leading subjects.
  • Won support via patronage- land grants, titles, offices, bringing into decision making.

Earldoms, shires and local government

  • Hierarichcal system of regional gov; earls governed land and exercised justice there.
  • 4 great earldoms of Wessex, Mercia, Northumbria + East Anglia.
  • Shires were the admin units where sheriffs implemented King's will; subdivided into hundreds administered by reeves, subdivided into vill overseen by reve.
  • System of shires remained largely unchanged until 1970s.
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2. Late Anglo-Saxon England 1053-66

The legal system 

  • King presided over disputes between earls/criminal cases like murder due to King's peace.
  • Shire courts met twice a year, presided over by sheriff/earl for theft, family disputes etc.
  • Royal writs/charters read at shire courts, hundred courts for routine cases (land disputes)
  • A-S Kings became legislators- produced legal codes to maintain law + order.
  • Each region had its own legal customs/traditions e.g. Canute's law code accepted that different laws existed in the earldoms like Danelaw (Edgar granted autonomy to Danes)
  • People took matters into their own hands; Northumbria had blood feuds due to remoteness from central authority.

How advanced was the Anglo-Saxon economy?

Royal mints and silver penny

  • Stable currency on silver pounds/shillings/pence, 9 million pennies by 1066- widely trusted.
  • Royal control was absolute- silver pennies cast by royally licensed moneyers in 60 mints.
  • Foreign coins forbidden + every 5 years coins were exchanged (profit for King).
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3. Late Anglo-Saxon England 1053-66

Urbanisation and the growth of trading centres

  • Stable currency/politics, network of trading contracts,well farmed hinterland aided development.
  • High degree of urbanisation by 1066- 10% in towns where they developed specialisms.
  • Towns developed from King Alfred's fortified burhs- built to be places of trade, law codes stated that all trade had to occur in urban markets.

Coastal towns and overseas trade

  • Complex EU trading system; exotic spices from trade routes opened by Vikings- exported more than imported ( became a net importer of silver so thegnly class were wealhy).
  • Main ports were London, Southampton, York- well placed for continental trade.

System of taxation

  • Geld administered by shires/hundreds- collected anually at 2 shillings per hide (could get 6k).
  • East England- 'Wapenstakes' unit of tax assessment for maintaing law and order.
  • Ability to raise large sums at short notice underlines strength/wealth of kingdom.
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1. Late Anglo-Saxon England: Godwins

Why was the Godwin family so powerful?

Earl Godwin 

  • Canute's chief advisor, son of Sussex thegn and earl of Wesesx.
  • Secured Ed nobility, gave sons earldoms of Hereford/East Anglia and arranged for Ed to marry Edith to cement dominance over the King.
  • Ed created a Norman faction in court to reduce his power and exiled their clan/redistributing their lands to Normans and sent Edith to a nunnery- returned next year, pilaging South West.
  • Ed forced to capitulate as army refused to fight/banished Norman advisors as a truce.

Rise of Harold 

  • Earl died- Harold got Essex, Tostig Northumbria, Gyrth and Leofwine East Anglia and Kent.
  • 1060s= only Mercia not under their control, estates worth £7,000 compared to Kings £5,000.
  • Ed knew little about English politics so relied on them as he had no entrenched supporters.
  • Realised that Godwin strength ensured stabiltity; developed strong relations w/Harold + Tostig.
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2. Late Anglo-Saxon England: Godwins

The Welsh Wars 

  • Harold earned his formidable warrior rep in Welsh wars.
  • Major threat to England's security= rise of Gruffyd ap Llewelyn who formed alliance w/disgraced earl of East Angla and invaded Herefordshire.
  • Harold sent to refortify region and reached peace deal which ended their alliance.
  • 1056- Gruffyd defeats bishop who raided Wales so Harold concedes more terms/recognises him as King, soon after Gruffyd allies with Aelfgar again.
  • Harold restores Aelfgar, Gruffyd more land, Magnus bought off= diplomatic means.
  • 1063- launches full-scale campaign and ravages Welsh coastline.
  • Wales disintegrated into warring principalities due to Harold's complex land/sea operation.

Harold's oath to Duke William of Normandy 1064

  • Norman account (William of Poitiers)- confirm Ed's offer of throne, shipwrecked, rescued by William and campaigned in Brittany as brothers in arms (Bayeux Tapestry supports).
  • A-S Chronicle/Vita Edwardi doesn't corroborate; Tapestry oath at Bayeux but William places it at Bonneville, Norman account to justify their invasion as Harold seen as a usurper?
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3. Late Anglo-Saxon England: Godwins

The Northumbrian uprising 1065

  • Wild and lawless region where Tostig was earl- tyrannical rule with brutal tactics/taxes.
  • Arranged murder of 3 local magnates so Northumbria revolted (Morcar installed as earl).
  • Rebels marched South, sacking Northampton, Derby, threatened Kingdom's stability.
  • Ed wanted to restore Tostig but Harold overruled him- sent into exile but fled to Flanders.
  • Harold exiled him as he needed a united England to hold off external threats, 1 less claimaint.

What were the early threats to Harold's throne?

Edward's death

  • Westminster consecrated in 1065- Ed dying so vigil kept by Stigand, Edith and Harold.
  • No son in attendance, Norman and Saxon accounts seem to suggest Harold was given throne- dying mans words of great importance.
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4. Late Anglo-Saxon England: Godwins

Succesion crisis: The Claimants 

  • Edgar: Ed's closest bloodline (strong hereditary principle but no fixed laws to ensure it).
  • Harold Hardrada: father Magnus had been promised throne 1035/ancestor of King Cnut.
  • Harold Godwinson: served as Ed's sub-regulous/Earl of Wessex/promised thorne at death?

The coronation

  • Witan decided on Harold-strong leader and warrior, crowned by Archbishop Ealdred w/pallium.
  • Normans: said it was illegitimate, was a coup d'etat, crowned by Ealdred who held 2 offices.
  • Harold issued coins w/peace inscription and image of himself- royal authority.
  • Threat from rival claimants- married Eadgyth the sister of Edwin and Morcar.

Battle of Gate Fulford

  • Joint invasion pact of Tostig/Hardrada, pilaged South East coast so Harold mobilised fyrd.
  • Winds kept William at bay so Harold demobilises troops, winds allow Hardrada to arrive and join Tostig in York.
  • England defeated- inexperienced earls/troops (lost 1,000, including housecarls).
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5. Late Anglo-Saxon England: Godwins

The Battle at Stamford Bridge 

  • Harold assembled housecarls in London/commenced march covering 300km in 5 days.
  • Risking tiring men but wanted to prevent Hardrada from consolidation/surprise attack.
  • Hardrada's men didn't gave protective mail coats on so surprise attack worked.
  • Experienced vikings lost as: vulerable in close combat without mail coats, Harold marched fast, numerically inferior, reinforcements tired by marching in full kit, Hardarada died early on so low morale, Harold able to deploy force at a short notice due to A-S military system.
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1. Norman Conquest of England

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1. Norman Conquest of England

Why was William able to win Battle of Hastings? 

William's military experience 

  • 2 decades of battle experience- dealt w/repeated invasions/defeated Henry I of France.
  • Took province of Maine 1063 after policy of destruction to spread terror.
  • 1064- subdued Brittany which fully secured Normandy's borders.
  • Could co-ordinate complex campagins, take/defend castles, waste land.
  • Loyal supporters- FitzOsbern, Roger of Montgomery.

Invasion preparation

  • Will secured backing of nobility through promise of rewards.
  • Diplomatic assualt- formal protest sent to Harold, set plan out before Pope by Lanfranc who stressed Harold's perjury and Stigand's pluralism so received papal banner as his blessing.
  • Fleet arrived in Pevensey then to Hastings; large harbour/defensible if they had to retreat.
  • Harold spent 5 days trying to recruit then forced early confrontation; lert archers/housecarls.
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2. Norman Conquest of England

Armies of William and Harold

  • Harold had 8,000 infantry on foot, well-armed housecarls/thegns at front with fyrd at back.
  • Normans had more professionals, archers at front and heavy infantry with knights no horses at rear; divided into Bretons, Normans and French.
  • A-S Viking Style combat was harder for leader to command vs Norman use of mounted knights.
  • Harold weakened by loss of trained fighters at Stamford/inability to command. 

Assessment of the battle 

Williams leadership

  • Careful prep- broad coalition of support in Normandy; magnates, Bretons, the Pope.
  • Meticulous logistical organisation- maintained army in summer, successfully transported across channel, ravaged land/provoking Harold into early battle.
  • Superior generalship- took the fight to Harold, took advantage of Breton retreat and rallied wavering troops.
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3. Norman conquest of England

Harold's mistakes 

  • Rushed to engage William- lost advantage of home soil/being the leader of the Godwin's.
  • Took weak force lacking experienced housecarls- untrained peasants broke shieldwall during feigned retreats.
  • Didn't order a general charge and didn't keep army on hill in defensive position.

Unequal armies 

  • William had heavy calavry and archers.
  • Harold was severly limited in ability to command troops by fighting on foot Viking style.
  • William's horse-borne prominence allowed him to rally troops after Breton collapse.
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4. Norman conquest of England

How did William deal with opposition to his rule?

The submission of the earls 

  • Now in hostile land- London blocked his advance and Stigand put Edgar forward as new King.
  • 1st priority- gain control of SE: employed terror tactics, receving surrender of Canterbury etc.
  • Wanted to isolate London so wasted the West and received submission of Winchester- now had control of Royal Treasury.
  • Stigand surrendered so Will cut off London from the North, remaining earls surrendered and accepted his overlordship.
  • Will crowned and anointed by Archbishop Ealdred of York (aura of being blessed by God).

Rebellion in the South 1067-69

  • 1067- stages triumphant tour around Normany w/prisoners (Stigang, Morcar, Edwin, Edgar).
  • FitzOsbern/Odo run England in his absence and harsh rule stirred rebellion in Kent- Eustace of Boulogne emerged as leader but soon fled back after rebels were quashed.
  • Some thegns willing to accept new regime to preserve estates- Will's policy of conciliation.
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5. Norman conquest of England

  • Exeter rebel- increased taxation to fund Norman occupation; Will returns 1067 as the SW was a Godwinson stronghold and hadn't yet officially submitted to him.
  • Norman troops made Exeter submit after 18-day siege and established castle.
  • Further raids in 1069 at Devon, Harold's sons launching a 2nd raid: Will supported by Count Brian of Brittany and Bishop Geoffrey of Coutances.

The Harrying of the North 1068-70

  • Greatest threat- Edgar defected from court to Scotland, Edwin/Morcar flee back to earldoms.
  • Staged lightning raids: Edwin/Morcar surrender, establishes castle in York.
  • 1069- rebels attack Durham and insurgents lay siege to York castle with Edgar as leader; establishes 2nd castle in York.
  • Danish fleet of 240 ships in Kent led by King Sweyn's sons; Edgar joins to seize York.
  • Will reoccupied York for 3rd time and carried out systematic harrying of Yorkshire; Domesday designated 1/3 as waste.
  • Short-term impacts: death from starvation, refugees, slavery to survive, cannibalism.
  • Long-term impacts: 60% wasted land, replacement of Englisn nobles, no more Northern rebels.
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6. Norman conquest of England

Foreign intervention and East Anglia rebellion 1070-71

  • North subdued- East Anglia was last bastion of resistance to Normans on Isle of Ely.
  • Occupied by Danish fleet with Hereford the Wake as leader, ideal location- vast marshland, easily defensible and had sea access for reinforcements/strike Northwards or East.
  • Hereward launched a devastating raid in Peterborough- Will used diplomacy/force and bought off Danes, sending deputies to capture rebel base but Hereword held them off.
  • 1071- Will takes command and sends fleed to blockade Ely and launch a successful assault.

The revolt of the earls 1075

  • Ralph, Roger + Waltheof all members of ruling class w/Norman, Breton and English blood.
  • Aim- divide kingdom into 3 with one as King with Danish support (arrive late w/200 ships).
  • Waltheof confessed to Lanfranc; executed the following year.
  • Ralph and Roger don't get Danish support; Roger imprisoned, Ralph fled to Brittany.
  • Will's ability to defeat rebellions: rebel's lack of co-ordination, rapid/decisive in battle, ineffectiveness of Danes/Scots in helping rebels/wasting prevented further uprisings.
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1. Welsh and Scottish threat

Imposing Norman control in Wales 

  • Fluid border- divided state so didn't pose a significant long-term threat.
  • Some Welsh princes wanted to capitalise on England's post-conquest chaos- 1067, Welsh prince allied w/Eadric the Wild (thegn dispossessed of Shropshire estates by Normans).
  • Normans used their rivalries to their advantage- Robert establishes 'Montgomery' castle.
  • FitzObsern started extending Norman control; established towns/casles; Will got tribute payments from Welsh princes as their overlord but only led 1 expedition in 1081.
  • Established 3 kingdoms known as the marcher earldoms.
  • Under William II- policy of steady expansion expanded by earls continued till 1093.

Malcom II of Scotland and the Northern Rebellion

  • Rival claims of lordship over North, long-standing tensions as Malcom wanted power.
  • Will worked through emissaries to secure oath of loyalty from Malcom/don't help rebels.
  • Malcom married Edgar's sister 1069 and launched raid into Northumbria, sacking Durham.
  • 1072 William blockaded coast/army ravaged- treaty at Abernathy (Malcom paid homage and Will neutralised a rebel safe haven by securing expulsion of Edgar/exiles).
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2. Welsh and Scottish threat

  • Success for Malcom too- launched another raid into Northumbria, submits to Curthose who establishes castle in Newcastle to allow further incursions into the North.
  • Northumbria remained uncontrollable/lawless so fulfilled Malcom's buffer between Sco + Eng.

Wiliam II and Scotland 1091-93

  • Malcom raided Northumbria 1090 so Rufus orders a reprisal march, Malcom submits.
  • 1092- Rufus goes on the offensive: seizes Carlisle/fortifies it and places Durham under ecclesiastical jurisdiction.
  • 1093- Malcom travelled South but Rufus refuses to meet so raids Northumbria and was killed.
  • Private actions of Norman lords saw Wales steadily brought under English rule but Scotland's remoteness from centre of power made conquest impossible (long established with a King).
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1. How did Normans militarise English society?

1. The Feudal System 

  • 1066- Will imported aggressive Norman model/created society geared towards war.
  • Introduced new social/legal system amongst upper classes- feudalism.
  • Subinfeudation: tenant-in-chief could grant to tenants, oaths making it formal.

2. The tenants-in-chief

  • Powerful Anglo-Norman elite granted 3/4 of England, 11 Norman magnates held 1/4 of land.
  • Each tenant-in-chief had to provide knights for military tasks of occupation (servitum debitum).
  • Church given control of 1/4 of Eng, unexempt from military obligation.

3. The knights 

  • Tenant-in-chief could maintain knights by granting land/keeping them in their household.
  • Landholding knights enfeoffed with their fief; lived off the rents of the land.
  • Household knights were elite- the best migrating to royal household to form nucleus of army.
  • Close bonds of loyalty between lord + knight- oaths, granting of arms, knight= lords vassal.
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2. How did Normans militarise English society?

4. Nature of Land Tenure 

  • Traditional view- imposed uniformly after in a rapid process post-conquest.
  • Recent view- developed slowly, occured as and when land came to him and depended on local circumstances/past tradition, some quotas based on pre-conquest obligations.

5. The power of the castle

  • Militarised landscape: motte + bailey was key instrument of war (palasides, high up).
  • Surrender of Exeter marked w/castle + Welsh border chain of castles to watch mountain passes and castles to guard northern frontier and provide staging posts.
  • Vital for outnumbered Normans- send out patrols/concentrate troops (unfamiliar to English).
  • Installed high callibre of men as castellans/caslte leaders (Norman magnates).
  • Norman programme of castle building changed the landscape- psychological symbol of conquest stressing permanence of Norman presence (over 80 by 1100).
  • As threat of rebellion died down, became seats of local gov- everyday feature of life.
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2. How did Normans militarise English society?

4. Nature of Land Tenure 

  • Traditional view- imposed uniformly after in a rapid process post-conquest.
  • Recent view- developed slowly, occured as and when land came to him and depended on local circumstances/past tradition, some quotas based on pre-conquest obligations.

5. The power of the castle

  • Militarised landscape: motte + bailey was key instrument of war (palasides, high up).
  • Surrender of Exeter marked w/castle + Welsh border chain of castles to watch mountain passes and castles to guard northern frontier and provide staging posts.
  • Vital for outnumbered Normans- send out patrols/concentrate troops (unfamiliar to English).
  • Installed high callibre of men as castellans/caslte leaders (Norman magnates).
  • Norman programme of castle building changed the landscape- psychological symbol of conquest stressing permanence of Norman presence (over 80 by 1100).
  • As threat of rebellion died down, became seats of local gov- everyday feature of life.
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2. How did Normans militarise English society?

4. Nature of Land Tenure 

  • Traditional view- imposed uniformly after in a rapid process post-conquest.
  • Recent view- developed slowly, occured as and when land came to him and depended on local circumstances/past tradition, some quotas based on pre-conquest obligations.

5. The power of the castle

  • Militarised landscape: motte + bailey was key instrument of war (palasides, high up).
  • Surrender of Exeter marked w/castle + Welsh border chain of castles to watch mountain passes and castles to guard northern frontier and provide staging posts.
  • Vital for outnumbered Normans- send out patrols/concentrate troops (unfamiliar to English).
  • Installed high callibre of men as castellans/caslte leaders (Norman magnates).
  • Norman programme of castle building changed the landscape- psychological symbol of conquest stressing permanence of Norman presence (over 80 by 1100).
  • As threat of rebellion died down, became seats of local gov- everyday feature of life.
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2. How did Normans militarise English society?

4. Nature of Land Tenure 

  • Traditional view- imposed uniformly after in a rapid process post-conquest.
  • Recent view- developed slowly, occured as and when land came to him and depended on local circumstances/past tradition, some quotas based on pre-conquest obligations.

5. The power of the castle

  • Militarised landscape: motte + bailey was key instrument of war (palasides, high up).
  • Surrender of Exeter marked w/castle + Welsh border chain of castles to watch mountain passes and castles to guard northern frontier and provide staging posts.
  • Vital for outnumbered Normans- send out patrols/concentrate troops (unfamiliar to English).
  • Installed high callibre of men as castellans/caslte leaders (Norman magnates).
  • Norman programme of castle building changed the landscape- psychological symbol of conquest stressing permanence of Norman presence (over 80 by 1100).
  • As threat of rebellion died down, became seats of local gov- everyday feature of life.
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1. State, Church and Society

Tools of Government

Power of monarchy and household

Change 

  • Land distribution to unprecedented amounts due to increased patronage.
  • Domesday book to increase power; monarch power reached new heights.
  • Feudal system created.
  • Used regents when absent e.g. FitzOsbern and Odo Bishop of Bayeux.
  • Royal household had to adapt to his absences, post 1072 spent 3/4 outside England.
  • Brought A-N nobility into the decision-making progress.

Continuity

  • Retained systems (coinage system) as they were ensuring stability.
  • Writs continued as before because they were superior to Norman gov processes.
  • Royal household remained largely unchanged, designed to support itinerant king.
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2. State, Church and Society

Chancery

Change 

  • Replaced chancellor in 1069 with Herefast, reflecting wider change in royal household of removing A-S and replacing w/Norman nobility.
  • Use of writs extended/adapted- before they were only in English, now in Latin too.

Continuity

  • Retained Regenbald as chancellor initially to avoid making sudden changes.

Geld and silver penny

Change

  • Less lucrative taxation- exempted many religious institutions from payment.
  • Opened new mints as royal authority extended into more regions (Durham, Cardiff).
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3. State, Church and Society

Continuity

  • Continued A-S precedent of levying taxes through geld in times of crisis.
  • Kept most of English moneyers who operated from the same 60 mints as before.
  • Royal control over currency was absolute- foreign coins still forbidden and coins exchanged.
  • 9 mill pennies in circulation by 1086.

Office of Sheriff

Change

  • Replaced sheriffs with Norman aristocrats- dismantled earldoms so sheriff authority increased to fill the power vacuum, controlled shire and only answered to the King.
  • Changes to feudal hierarchy made King more powerful and society more dependent on him.

Continuity

  • Continued role of supervising tax collection/fines, overseeing justice and raising an army.
  • Writs to issue royal will, sherrifs enforced them in the same system of shires/hundreds.
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4. State, Church and Society

Local courts

Change 

  • Feudalism- manorial courts where lord of manor maintained law and order between men.
  • Forest law- covered areas defined as 'royal forest' to protect wildlife/had own courts.
  • Ecclesiastical cases only to be heard in Church courts- separation of Church and State.
  • No longer used compensatory justice (changed to death/physical mutilation).

Continuity 

  • Preserved shire/hundred courts- King remained chief arbiter of justice.
  • No new law codes implemented.
  • New murdrum fine built on AS principle of communal responsibility (like tithing system).

Domesday book

  • Started 1085- very detailed: 24% Church land, 20% King's land, 5% nobles land.
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5. State, Church and Society

Purpose of the Domesday book

Economic 

  • To ascertain how much tax could be levied/how much more could be raised.
  • Could see where landholders should be paying more money.
  • Compare to other countries- growing economic competitiveness/rise of markets.
  • Measure improvements since Edward's reign.

Legal

  • Post-Hastings land chaos: landowners killed which caused land-grabbing/disputes.
  • Ascertain who legally owned what/what can be given to nobles legally.
  • Consolidate chaos and William's legitimacy to create an ordered society.

Political

  • Which powerful people owned what and what to give to who.
  • Legitimise his ownership of land and the Norman takeover of England.
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6. State, Church and Society

Military

  • Where to station Norman troops to protect against Cnut threat; threat of Viking invasion 1085.
  • See how many more knights his tenants could provide for knight service.
  • Levy money to fund military.
  • Legitimise and legalise vassal agreements.

How was it produced?

  • Mostly written by a single scribe- originally 2 books, Great and Little Domesday.
  • Only possible due to efficient A-S admin system w/bureaucracy of shires and hundreds.

What does it tell us about A-S and A-N systems?

  • Will sought legitimacy- used the efficient A-S admin systems.
  • Will saw himself as owner of all lands but renting it to lords.
  • Tells us about social hierarchy- King to peasants.
  • Lings to progressive taxation today.
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7. State, Church and Society

New elite: End of English aristocracy

  • Initially intended to rule with A-S nobility; allowed Edwin and Morcar to keep earldoms.
  • Thegns allowed to keep lands at lower levels: only if not at Hastings and had to buy it back.
  • Archbishops Ealdred and Stigand held church offices at York + Canterbury.
  • Rebellions led him to disinhereit native aristocracy- Domesday lists 10% of subtenants as English and the thegnly class gone.

Changes in land tenure

Will granted land to supporters

  • Normans dominated land, Will granted land to supporters who then passed it on to theirs.
  • Orderic Vitalis- Will offered knights estates for fighting at the Battle of Hastings.

Different way of carving land up and tenurial variation

  • Granted consolidated lands to loyal supporters (Odo given Kent, FitzOsbern Isle of Wight).
  • Created rapes under control of a magnate to ensure control/safety (1/3 of Eng was rapes).
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8. State, Church and Society

New earldoms and growth of Norman influence 

Giving Normans land 

  • Gave most loyal supporters enough land to make them rich- assert dominance.
  • Domesday- 1/2 land in Eng held by just 200 Normans, 1/2 of which belonged to 10 magnates.

Changes in earldoms

  • New earldoms of Herefordshire, Shropshire, Cheshire: smaller than A-S predecessors.
  • Magnates enjoyed less wealth than preceding English earls.
  • Even a coalition of the top 10 magnates couldn't equal Will's resources: 2x as much land as all of them with income of £12,600. 
  • Could deal with the most powerful magnates:1082- ordered arrest of Odo, Ralph and Roger).
  • Will's son Rufus became King in 1087 and defeated threat of Odo and his coalition of magnates who tried to install Robert as King.
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9. State, Church and Society

Norman aristocracy

  • Knights replaced thegns; not a homogenous group e.g. common/noble. New social group.
  • Knights supported by landed income: land came from Lord's demesne, low social status.
  • Knights supported by household position: profressionals served in baron's household.

Similarities of knights and thegns 

  • Both went to war equipped with saddled horse, armour, sword, spear and shield.
  • Both had strong bonds of loyalty to their lord.

Differences of knights and thegns 

  • For enfeoffed knight land formed basis of military service; became lord's vassal.
  • Thegn's military service stemmed from rank not land; their service filled part of wider duties, role of the knight was to guard castle, campaign and quash rebellions.
  • Thegn had to posses 5 hides or more whereas knight's estates varied in size.

 

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10. State, Church and Society

Village life 

Change 

  • Plunder, brutality and murder displaced whole communities.
  • Population loss but immigration from France; assimilation of 2 cultures.

Value of manors 

  • Domesday: Yorkshire dropped by 60%, value of manors in Sussex fell by 40%.

Land grabbing 

  • Demanded higher rent/increased obligations so peasants had to work harder.
  • Downward movement of landowner to tenant; decline in high-status peasants and subsequent rise in landless labourers.

 

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11. State, Church and Society

New planned, nucleated villages

  • Advantage for Lord; greater control, dispersed settlements more common in North and East.

Continuity 

  • No change in fundamental structure of agriculture- no new innovations.
  • Norman lords may have worked peasants harder but not a major change.
  • Consisted of a nucleated village and manor house for lord/sheriff and church.
  • Greatest continuity- precariousness of life, A-S chronicle lists bad harvests, disease. 

Towns and trading patterns 

Changes 

  • Population loss in towns due to castle building programme.
  • Towns faced heavy taxation due to economy contracts.
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12. State, Church and Society

Trading patterns 

  • New French trading- were exempt from some trade laws.
  • Increased exports: English wool became hugely exported (home in Flemish textile industry).
  • Economic trade w/Scandanavia reduced (impacted North) and trade w/Normandy increased to boost South- Southern ports thus flourished.

Short-term negative economic impact but long-term development 

  • Helped rebuild- castles and 21 new towns.
  • Jews come to Rouen- trade in silver increases/exchange of foreign coins for English ones.
  • Sparked long economic boom- wealthy South and poor North.
  • Ecclesiastical building programme brought significant investment to the area.

Continuity

  • Protection of traditional rights in towns e.g. in London, castles provided economic security.
  • A-S nobles had equally luxurious liking of expensive goods and cross-channel trade increased.
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13. State, Church and Society

Royal forests and forest law 

Changes 

  • No one but royalty allowed to hunt there; New Forest Hampshire, Sherwood Forest.
  • Destroyed villages and farms (20 villages, 12 hamlets, containing 20,000 destroyed).
  • Made land grabs of other Normans seem more legitimate.
  • Source of royal revenue through fines paid/sale of hunting rights to other nobles.

Continuity

  • Hated symbol of Norman oppression but Ed hunted, William had formalised hunting more so.
  • Some people stayed on the outskirts; created legal problems, have to obey separate law code.
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14. State, Church and Society

Disappearance of slavery and promotion of rights

Change

  • Around 10% slaves under Ed, slavers sold in markets or to Ireland/Scandanavia for agricultural work/domestic work/concubines.
  • 1120s- virtually gone, not economically worth it and concubines created illegitimate offspring.
  • Number of slaves in Essex fell by 25%.
  • Initially reluctant to abolish as he profited but was advocated at the highest levels by Lanfranc.

Feudalism

  • All land belongs to the King so notion of freeholding disappeared; land at King's discretion.

Tenants in chief

  • 1/4 land for Church, 1/2 loyal followers, 11 tenant-in-chiefs granted nearly a 1/4.
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15. State, Church and Society

Knights

  • Taking oaths- provided land on condition they'd raise army of soldiers when needed (Servitum Debitum)- could produce 4-5000 troops.
  • Although feudal rarely summoned- problem of logistics/organisation too great.

Why the Church needed reform

Church in England 

  • Major landowner- monasteries, nunneries, churches: land couldn't be granted away or sold.
  • Bishops and abbots often centre of gov, formulating policy and controlling provinces.
  • Church was resitant to reforms from EU- wealthy and politically powerful.

Reform in EU

  • Clerical abuses in France was bad- inspiration to reform English Church.
  • Greatest reforming Pope- Gregory VII clashed w/William but accepted claim to get papal support for invasion.
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16. State, Church and Society

Why the Church needed reform

  • Simony- buying/selling of ecclesiastical priveleges, selling of church posts.
  • Nepotism- securing of posts for relatives/friends.
  • Pluralism- holding of more than once church office at once.
  • Clerical marriage- priests were supposed to be celibate but many had wives/mistresses.

How corrupt was the English church pre-1066?

  • Clerical abuses were common.
  • Stigand a notorious abuser of Church priveleges- Bishop of Westminster and Archbishop pluralists. Bishops refused to be consecrated by him e.g. Wulfstan of Worcester.
  • Relations with papacy were good.
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17. State, Church and Society

Controlling the church

Why change?

  • Will tightly controlled Norman Church so wanted to transfer the same domination to England's ecclesiastical affairs.
  • Was a crusade in the 1st place- papal support on basis of reforming Church.
  • Saw AS church as source on power: held 1/4 of wealth + clergy advised monarchy.

William's plan

  • Cautious at first to confirm legitimacy and gain support of establishment.
  • Diverted by a series of uprisings against his rule.

Lanfranc's reform

  • King's closest advisor/regent, both supporters of papal reform and aimed to strengthen western church/remove common abuses and wanted a strict hierarchy. 
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18. State, Church and Society

  • Est. Canterbury as prime ecclesiastical office in Eng but was a pluralist/simony.
  • 'Primate' of Britain, believed only the Church/King should appoint bishops but Stigand got his job due to the Godwin's, had no real control over archbishops in England.

Councils

  • Lanfranc convened 10 Church councils during Will's reign; council meetings to enact change.
  • Stigand deposed at 1070 council- removal of bishops, replaced with royal Norman supporters.
  • Legislation passed at councils- banning clergy marriages, compulsory celibacy for priests, moving of cathedrals to cities.
  • New aristocracy- Norman nobility replaced English abbots and bishops.

New infrastructure

  • Norman bishops rebuilt massive cathedrals in a Romanesque style- end of 11th century, all old style buildings demoilshed/rebuilt e.g Cathedral/Winchester,
  • Nothing considered sacred- shrines/relics removed as churches were redeveloped.
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19. State, Church and Society

New structure: creation of a uniform, hierarchical church

  • New Norman pattern to base dioceses in cities; earldoms split into archdeaconaries and rural deaneries; archdeacons had new territorial responsibility.
  • Parishes and priests- smallest unit in Church admin with its own church/clergy.
  • Monastic cathedrals- four in AS England but new ones created.
  • Separate church courts made which ordered synods.

Great extent of change

  • Removal of Stigand- Pope's condemned him for holding 2 archbishoprics/supporting antipope.
  • King controlled communication between Church and Pope/he granted approval for decisions.
  • Imposition of Romanesque style showed more conservative/papal appeasing church.
  • Monastic structure- used synods to speak out about corruption: 1075 attacked simony.

Limited change

  • Archdeaconaries existed pre-1066 just didn't have territorial jurisdiction. 
  • Clerical matters could still be heard in shire courts, many priests remained married.
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20. State, Church and Society

William II and Archbishop Anselm 

  • Lanfranc died 1089 and William II showed no interest in appointing a successor- took profits.
  • 1093- appointed Anselm who initially rejected but succumbed to pressure.
  • William II saw church as an institution to be exploited whereas Anselm enthused by reform.

Clashes between William II and Anselm 

Which pope to recognise: Urban II or Clement II

  • Anselm recognised Urban and refused Will's request to retract; Anselm also insisted on getting pallium from Urban II in Rome.
  • 1095 council- met to discuss, royal appointees royal to King, lay nobles on Anselm's side.
  • William's secret negotiations with Urban II through legate: in turn for recognising pope, no legates/papal letters sent to Eng without King's consent.
  • Anselm received his pallium 1095- fully aware of King's dislike for him.
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21. State, Church and Society

Refusal to have reforming councils

  • Further strained relations- important to Anselm to tacke corruption, asked in 1097 to go to Rome to discuss reform.
  • Will's ultimatum (backed by clergy): gave him 2 options, go to Rome and face land confiscation or stay and never appeal to Rome. Anselm chose the former.

Anselm in Rome 1098

  • Urban wasn't ready to take decisive action in support of Anselm (anti pope: continuing struggle against Clement II meant he needed England's financial support through Peter's pence tax).

Changes

  • Anselm- new archbishops. Rome less willing to reform, controlled info flow between Eng/Rome.

Limits

  • Church still corrupt- Will sold himself church offices, refused Anselm permission to organise a reforming council- was unwilling to reform.
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22. State, Church and Society

Henry I, Anselm and the Investiture Controversy

Lay investiture

  • Invited Anselm to return to Eng in 1100- focused on freeing church from secular control.
  • Lay investiture condemned at papal council in Clermont- power from King not Church.
  • Enforced Pope's reforming degrees, warned Henry if he attempted to invest new bishops they wouldn't be recognised.
  • Was a direct attack on monarchy's traditional rights over Church- needed a united church.

Good relationship in meantime 

  • Presided over marriage to Matilda; crowned her.
  • Persuaded wavering magnates to remain loyal when Robert landed in 1101.

Reforming councils

  • Allowed to be held 1102, condemned clerical marriage/abuses, Henry in favour of reform as long as it didn't impinge on his powers.
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23. State, Church and Society

Anselm's exile 1103

  • Henry's growing power pressurised Anselm to accept lay investiture/pay him homage.
  • 1103- self imposed exile of Anselm; increased magnitude of dispute= Pope intervened more.
  • 1104- Pope Paschal sent Henry a letter warning of not holding grace of Christ.
  • Personal reconciliation of Henry and Anselm in 1106, Henry gave up right to investiture.

Notes

  • Returned to reforming councils to condemn corruption.
  • Relative but not absolute- absolute reform limited.
  • BUT: tough to reform across all of EU as it could be destructive.
  • Kept lay invesiture but different Popes. Paschal kept warning whereas Will had been able to use homage/investiture but eventually gave up the latter.
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24. State, Church and Society

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24. State, Church and Society

The Norman Kings and papacy

  • Relations never as strained as German emperor under Will or his sons.

Edward

  • 1st hint at reform- Pope Nicholas desired to clam on reforms 1061 when pallium to Ealdred on condition that he gives up Worchester bishopric.
  • Ed maintained strong control over Church but distant relations with Rome.

William I

  • Expected to rule Church absolutely, papacy valued his support for moral reform-papal banner.
  • Gregory VII expanded authority, enforce regular attendance in Rome of English bishops.
  • 1080- Gregory calls on Will for homage (Will's supporters reluctant to reduce church control).
  • Relations deteriorated when Anselm went into exile- lack of reform unaccepted.
  • Political weakness of Urban prevented him from excommunicating William.
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