tectonic activity and hazards

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  • Created by: dom
  • Created on: 26-05-15 11:30

DEFINITIONS - TECTONIC

EVENT - result of movement or deformation of the earths crust, usually earthquake or volcanoes 

HAZARD - when an event has potential to have an impact on people resulting in loss of life and/or physcial damage to property 

DISASTER - when a tectonic event occurs and causes extensive loss of life, damage and destruction.

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PHYSICAL EVENT PROFILE OF HAZARDS

  • MAGNITUDE
  • SPEED OF ONSET 
  • DURATION 
  • AREAL EXTENT 
  • SPATIAL PREDICTABILITY 
  • FREQUENCY 
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ASIAN TSUNAMI

SOUTH EAST ASIAN TSUNAMI - 2004 boxing day 

226,000 deaths - $9.9 billion damage - 500,000 injured - 9.2 magnitude earthquake (indian ocean) - 13 countries affected - huge areal extent 

diseases killed 150,000

destruction of builidng material and transport made rescue efforts harder 

poor building strucutre (ledc) - indonesia worst affected 

tsunami warning system put in place - uneducated before hand 

billions of aid provided  - red cross 

USE CASE STUDY FOR - MAGNITUDE, LEVEL OF DEVELOPMENT, LACK OF KNOWLEDGE, AREAL EXTENT, FREQUENCY (doesnt happen alot)

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JAPANESE TSUNAMI

JAPANESE TOHOKU TSNUAMI 2011 - 

15,854 deaths - $235 billion damage - 8.9 magnitude 

compare with asian tsunami - more developed= less deaths ( things like sea walls put in place to defend) 

more valuble buildings = more $ damage 

FUKISHIMA power plant destroyed - radiation secondary hazard

military helped evacuation

USE CASE STUDY FOR - LEVEL OF DEVELOPMENT, FREQUENCY, MAGNITUDE, 

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NYRIOGONGO VOLCANO

2002 EARTHQUAKE CONGO 

VEI STRENGTH -1 - 120,000 homeless -  congo gdp per capita - $406 (ledc) 

nearest city GOMA - POPULATION OF 1 MILLION - densely populated ( vulnerable population) 

400,000 people evacuated 

unicef flew aid in - food - water in tankers 

USE CASESTUDY FOR - LEVEL OF DEVELOPMENT, VULNERABLE POPULATION (lack of choice) , COMPARE WITH EYJAFALLAJOKULL- population density and magnitude?

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EYJAFJALLAJOKULL VOLCANO

ICELAND 2010 - VEI STRENGTH OF 3/4

DEATH TOLL 0 - population of entire iceland 323,000 (low density) 

GDP$ 47,500 MEDC 

800 EVACUATED 

USE CASE STUDY FOR - MAGNITUDE (big but not much damage - exception - anomalie), LEVEL OF DEVELOPMENT, AND POPULATION DENSITY COMPARE TO NYRIOGONGO 

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MERAPI VOLCANO

INDONESIA 2010 - VEI 4 

DEATH TOLL - 360 - 360,000 HOMELESS 

600 MILLION $ DAMAGE - TOURISM AND FARMING 

GDP PER CAPITA -$3500

About 70,000 people live in the immediate vicinity of the volcano = HIGH POP DENSITY = CROWDED EVACUATION CENTRES 

USE CASE STUDY FOR - MAGNITUDE (compare to iceland volcono), POPULATION DENSITY 

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IRANIAN EARTHQUAKE

1990 - 7.3 MAGNITUDE 

50,000 DEAD 

RESCUE WORKS DELAYED BY AFTER SHOCKS AND SECONDARY HAZARDS LIKE LANDSLIDES - ADDING TO DEATH TOLLL 

RAPIDLY RISING POPULATION AND LOCAL CONFLICT MEANT BUILDING STANDARDS WERE NOT SATISFACTORY (IRAN/IRAQ WAR) 

USE CS FOR - MAGNITUDE, CONFLICT, POPULATION SIZE

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IRANIAN EARTHQUAKE 2

1997 - MAGNITUDE 7.1 

2400 DEATHS - AID FOR HOMELESSNESS CAME WITHIN 3 DAYS 

THIS TIME BETTER BUILIDING REGULATIONS - LESS DEATHS 

EDUCATION AND EVACUATION ROUTES WERE PLANNED THIS TIME 

COMPARE TO 1990 IRANIAN ONE - SIMILAR SIZED, MODYFYING VULNERABILTY (EVACUATION ROUTES), MODYFYING EVENT ( SEISMIC BUILDINGS )

ALSO COMPARE SECONDARY HAZARDS IMPORTANCE - 1990 HAD THEM 1997 DIDNT 

CONFLICT ENDED 

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COMPARING MAGNITUDE

HAITI 2010 - 1.3 MILLION HOMELESS/ 316,OOO DEATHS

MAGNITUDE 7

COMPARE TOO......

SANBORTON IN 2015 USA

MAGNITUDE 2.3 = 0 DEATHS, 0 HOMELESS

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COMPARING ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

MT PINATUBO 1991 - KILLED 847 - 400 DUE TO DISEASE  

GDP PER CAPITA $715

POOR BUILDING STRUCTURE - COLLAPSE OF BUILDINGS 

COMPARE TO ........

MT ST HELENS 1980 

GDP PER CAPITA $12,500

TECHNOLOGY TO PREDICT - CLOSED CERTAIN AREAS - EVACUATION 

ONLY 62 DIED 

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COMPARING PREPARATION

KOBE EARTHQUAKE JAPAN - 1995 - 7.2 ON THE RICHTER SCALE 

- MODERN BUILDINGS DESIGNED TO BE EARTHQUAKE PROOF,LESS BUILDINGS COLLAPSED 

LESS DEATHS = 7,000 - MEDC MORE PREPARED HAD EVACUATION SYSTEMS IN PLACE 

COMPARE TO....

SICHUAN 2008 - 7.9 

80% OF BUILDINGS COLLAPSED LESS PREPARED - LEDC, 700 SCHOOLS COLLAPSED 

DEATHS 70,000

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COMPARING DURATION

SUMATRA - 9.1 MAGNITUDE - CAUSED BOXING DAY TSUNAMI  - 24000 DEATHS 

LASTED 10 MINUTES 

COMPARE TO 

TOHOKU - JAPAN 2011 

LASTED 5 MINUTES - CAUSED 16000 DEATHS - TSUNAMI AS WELL  

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COMPARING TIME OF DAY

NEVADO DEL RUIZ ERUPTION 1985 - COLOMBIA - VEI STRENGTH 3 - HAPPENED DURING NIGHT - 23,000 DEATHS 

LEDC UNPREPARED 

COMPARE TO....

MONTSERAT 1997 - CARRIBEAN - DAYTIME - 20 DEATHS - ABLE TO EVACUATE - 50% OF POPULATION M0VED UP NORTH 

VEI STRENGTH 3 

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