Strengths of the biological approach
- Uses lab experiments
- Quantifiable data
- Classical conditioning applied in Aversion Therapy
- operant conditioning been applied in successful teaching techniques, positive and negative reinforcement develops behaviour in a classroom.
-Focuses on here and now
- Not concerned about events in a persons past.
- e.g. Aversion therapy used to treat alcoholism
Weaknesses of biological approach
-It focuses on the nurture side of the argument.
- Role of nature ignored.
- role of external factors exaggerated.
- Doesn't consider the thought processes that people have before acting the way they do.
- Undermines our choice of free will.
-More relevent to animals than humans
- Has its roots from Pavlov and Skinner both non-animal experiments
- Humans may not respond in same way.
Strengths of Psychodynamic
-Nature and Nurture
- Adult personality product of innate drives.(Nature)
- Also childhood experiences(Nurture)
- Highlights fact childhood is a critical period.
- Freuds ideas have influenced therapies that treat mental disorders greatly.First person to put forward that psychological factors could play a part in physical symptoms.
- Useful approach for understanding Mental health.
-Reflects complexity of human behaviour
- seeks to uncover deep meanings and acknowledge deep understanding.
Weaknesses of psychodynamic approach
- Mechanistic reductionism because it explains complex human behaviour with mechanisms such as the ID, EGO and superEGO.
- Ignores important influences such as biochemistry and genetics
- e.g in 50s and 60s autism was explained by the fact the mother was not close enough to child.
- Tells us we have no free will of what we become when we grow up, all due to childhood experiences.
-Cannot be proven wrong
- Difficult to falsify
- All theories are about repressed feelings if there repressed they cant be measured
Strengths of Cognitive approch
- Focuses on important process between stimulus and response.
- Tried to explain how processes such as memory and perception affect the way we respond to the world.
- Helped with practical psychology e.g. improving memory using cue cards.
- has useful applied therapies, CBT that treats menatal disorders, such as depression.
- Much of thinking is cognitive in nature, involved at looking at world and people around us.
- Lab experiments, quantifiable, repeatable, controlled variables.
weaknesses of cognitive approach
-Nature and Nurture
- Doesnt take in important parts such as Genes e.g. twin studies
- social and cultural factors ignored seems unrealistic.
- we form schemas when we encounter something new but these may be incorrect e.g. a child may call everything with forur legs and hair a dog or that woman with blonde hair are stupid these cultural stereotypes may determine the way we interpret a situation.
- It portrays human beings as being like machines.
- Ignore social and emotional factors, over simplify therefore reductionist also.
Strengths of Biological approach
- Have clear variables that can be measured, tracked and examined.
- We know what predetermines our behaviour, more likely to be able to treat people with abnormal behaviour.e.g. Neurotransmitter dopamine been linked to schizophrenia.
- Psychsurgery effective
weaknesses of biological approach
- Reduce complex behaviours to simple explanation
- Saysa mental illness is basically the chemical system gone wrong, this does not take into account any distress happening in their life.
- Focuses on nature
- Ignores life experiences and physiological factors such as how people think or feel.
- Nometheticapproach, makes generalisations about people
- ignores individual differences e.g. when stressed people produce different amounts of adrenaline.