UNIT 3 - TOPIC 5
Class & Sexual groups Stereotypes
Average WC representation
BUTSCH (1995) - Mostly negative representations. Contrasting to MC who are presented as educated, successful and able to cope with problems, also over-represented and have more exposure in the media.
- Predominance of hospital drama's ; Holby City and Casuality / crime drama's ; Lewis and Midsummer Murders = present MC occupations and being able to cope with pressures of their profession (Cheif Superintendent, doctor or nurse).
+ KENDALL (2005) - fits in with dominant ideology/hegemonic as positive representations of MC.
- EHRENREICH - WC presented as dumb, inarticulate and lazy.
E.G: 'The Royale Family' British TV sitcom captures another set of stereotypes. An idle father and long-suffering mother in a family of couch potatoes that endlessly watch TV.
BUTSCH (2002) - US TV study, stereotype of white WC men as buffoons who are immature, irresponsible and require supervision. 'The Simpsons' Homer is placed against his sensible wife.
Soap Opera's 'close knit' stereotype
GERAGTHY (1991) - Myth that WC are friends with everyone in immediate communities.
- EastEnders and Coronation Street, characters visit the local pub and work together.
=bare little relation to reality, WC communities have declined and disappeared with collapse of traditional industries (ship building, coal-mining and steel industry).
- WC audience compensate for this loss of community as WC viewers have the chance to temporarily inhabit a nostalgic, virtual community that no longer exists
+ POSTMODERNISTS: ABERCROMBIE (1999) - Soaps are not always caught in the past.
- Soap storylines are actually driven by strong female figures like Peggy Mitchell from EastEnders who offer WC audiences positive role models and identities.
DYER (2002) - remain strong in the media.
- Male homosexuality in the media are dominated by camp characters - effeminate, mincing men with high voices - who make fun of the serious and respectable.
- Although have subversive roles, they're a safe form of sexual stereotype, unchallenging to traditional masculinity.
E.G : Comic actors like Kenneth Williams and Charles Hawtrey in Carry On Films. Also extremely popular success' like Graham Norton and Alan Carr continue the popularity.
+ POSTMODERNISTS: Growing diversity of homosexual groups like gay men and lesbians are gradually eroding. TV and comedy have been kinder to homosexuals like Friends who feature lesbian relationships in a sympathetic way. Also in EastEnders and other soaps that feature major homosexual characters.
- Plots still focus on homosexuality as a problem and as gays coming to terms with their sexuality. Characters are overwhelmingly white MC. GROSS (1993) no 'plain gays' in the media.
'Lesbian women as 'sex objects' for the sexual gratification of men'
- Reflect male fantasy
- Bound and Kissing Jessica Stein achieved box office success, though he argues they feature image that have nothing to do with the way that lesbians might percieve each other and have a great deal to do with male, heterosexual fantasies.
Lesbian women in **** are not put off using mainstream representations of women for their sexual uses and gratifications.
E.G: Xena : Warrior Princess became a cult series in the late 1990s that revolves around Xena's relationship with her young female companion Gabrielle. There are no explicit lesbian sexual activity.