Increased Birth Rate 1830-70
- Child labour - more money
- Early marriages - success of whisky/kelp etc. industries encouraged early marriage.
- Better food supply - agricultural development, railways
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Decreased Birth Rate 1870 - 1930
- Marriage less attractive (collapse of whisky+kelp indust.)
- Women and Children forbidden from working in more industries
- Elementary education became compulsory from 1870s
- Shortage of men (war/emigration)
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Decreased Death Rate 1870 - 1930
- Clean Hospitals
- Safe anaesthetics, better medicine
- Intro of blood transfusions saved lives
- Public health improved (councils took on responded to sewage disposal)
- Councils cleared slums and provided cheap houses for rent
- Window Tax ended in 1851
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- Whisky and Kelp failure
- Whisky trade crushed by gov, many couldn't afford rent
- Landowners wanted more rent, b/c of Kelp failure
- Potato Blight 1830 wiped out crop, many depended on it for survival
- Landowners evicted poor, replaced with sheep
- Highland lairds in debt, sell land, new owners keen to get rid of surplus pop.
- Railways - travel easier - deer estates + shooting hols more popular, evictions to create these.
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- High rents.
- bad living cons
- More land, wealth opportunities
- Prospect of better living cons.
- Lack of workers in some company.
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- Irish - escaping high rents+poverty
- Potato famine killed a million, forced another to emigrate
- Irish had network of fellow irish in scottish cities - easier to find accomodation and work
- Skilled in linen and textile
- Least paid/pleasant jobs - sugar houses
- Accused of dragging down wages
- Helped build canals/railways
- contributed and suffered religious discrimination - catholics vs protestants
- jews - escaping hatred in Europe
- Italians and Lithuanians - seekling better economic welfare.
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