C5: A Modern Thriving Society


The UK Today: The Nations of The UK

  • UK Today
    • More diverse society than it was 100 years ago, in both ethnic and religious terms
    • Post-war immigration means that nearly 10% of the population has a parent or grandparent born outside the UK
    • Continues to be a multinational and multiracial society with a rich and varied culture.
  • The Nations of the UK
    • UK - located in the north west of Europe
    • Longest distance on the mainland - from John O'Groats on the north coast of Scotland to Land's End in the south-west corner of England.
      • About 870 miles (approx. 1,400 km)
    • Most people live in towns and cities but much of Britain is still countryside
    • People visits the countryside for holidays and leisure activities such as walking, camping, and fishing
1 of 64

The UK Today: Cities of The UK

  • England
    • London - Capital city of UK
    • Birmingham, Bradford, Bristol
    • Leeds, Liverpool
    • Manchester
    • Newcastle Upon Tyne, Norwich
    • Plymouth
    • Sheffield, Southampton
  • Scotland
    • Edinburgh - Capital city of Scotland
    • Aberdeen, Dundee, Glasgow
  • Wales
    • Cardiff - Capital city of Wales
    • Swansea, Newport
  • Northern Ireland
    • Belfast - Capital city of N. Ireland
2 of 64

The UK Today: UK Currency

  • Pound Sterling
    • UK currency
    • £ - symbol
    • Denominations of currency:
      • Coins1p, 2p, 5p, 10p, 20p, 50p, £1, £2
      • Notes - £5, £10, £20, £50
  • Northern Ireland and Scotland
    • Have their own banknotes
    • Valid everywhere in the UK
    • Shops and businesses do not have to accept them
3 of 64

The UK Today: Languages and Dialects

  • There are many variations in language in different parts of the UK
  • English language - has many accents and dialects
  • Wales
    • Many people speak Welsh
    • Taught in school and universities
  • Scotland
    • Gaelic - spoken in some parts of the Highlands and Islands
  • Northern Ireland
    • Some people speak Irish Gaelic
4 of 64

The UK Today: Population

  • 1600 - Over 4 million
  • 1700 - 5 million
  • 1801 - 8 million
  • 1851 - 20 million
  • 1901 - 40 million
  • 1951 - 50 million
  • 1998 - 57 million
  • 2005 - Just under 60 million
  • 2010 - Just over 62 million
  • Population growth - faster in more recent years due to migration into the UK and longer life expectancy
  • England - 84% of total population
  • Scotland - just over 8%
  • Wales - around 5%
  • Northern Ireland - less than 3%
5 of 64

The UK Today: An Ageing Population and Ethnic Dive

  • People living in the UK
    • Living longer than before due to improved living standards and better health care
    • There are now a record number of people aged 85 and over
    • This has an impact on the cost of pensions and healthcare
  • Ethnic Diversity
    • UK population - ethnically diverse and changing rapidly
    • People in the UK with ethnic origins from all over the world
    • Most common ethnic description chosen: White
        • This includes:
        • European
        • Australian
        • Canadian
        • New Zealand
        • American descent
      • Other significant groups:
        • Asian, Black and mixed descent
6 of 64

The UK Today: An Equal Society

  • It is a legal requirement that men and women should not be discriminated against because of their gender or because they are, or are not, married
  • Men and women have equal rights to:
    • work, own poperty, marry, divorce
  • If married, parents are equally responsible for their children
  • Women in Britain today:
    • make up about half of the workforce
    • girls leave school with better qualifications than boys
    • More women study at uni than men
    • Have more employment opportunities
    • Work in all sectors of the economy
    • More women in high level positions such a senior managers - traditionally male-dominated
    • Are not expected to stay at home and not work
    • Often continue work after having children
  • Men today:
    • Work in more varied jobs than they did in the past
7 of 64


  • UK 
    • Historically a Christian country
    • According to Citizenship survey in 2009:
      • Christianity  - 70%
      • No religion - 21%
      • Muslim - 4%
      • Hindu - 2%
      • Sikh - 1%
      • Jewish - Less than 0.5%
      • Buddhist - Less than 0.5%
      • Other religions - 2%
    • Everyone has the right to choose their religion
  • Religious buildings in the UK includes:
    • Islamic mosques
    • Hindu temples
    • Jewish synagogues
    • Sikh gurdwaras
    • Buddhist temples
8 of 64

Religion: Christian Churches

  • In England
    • There's a constitutional link between Church and state

      • Called the Anglican Church in other countries
      • Called the Episcopal Church in Scotland and US
      • It is Protestant church and has existed since the Reformation in 1530s
      • Monarchhead of the Church of England
      • Archbishop of Canterbury - Spiritual leader of the Church of England
      • Monarch has the right to select the Archbishop and other senior church officials but usually, the choice is made by the PM and a committee appointed by the Church
      • Several Church of England bishops sit in the House of Lord
9 of 64

Religion: Christian Churches

  • In Scotland
    • Church of Scotlandthe national Church
      • Is a Presbyterian Church
      • Governed by ministers and elders
      • Moderator - chairperson of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland
        • Appointed for only 1 year and often speaks on behalf of that Church
  • In Wales or Northern Ireland
    • No established church
  • Other Protestant Christian groups in the UK
    • Baptists
    • Methodists
    • Presbyterians
    • Quakers
    • Biggest denominations of Christianity is Roman Catholic
10 of 64

Religion: Patron Saints' Days

  • England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland each have a national saint called patron saint
  • Patron saints' special day:
    • March 1 - St. David's Day, Wales
    • March 17 - St. Patrick's Day, N. Ireland
    • April 23 - St. George's Day, England
    • November 30 - St. Andrew's Day, Scotland
  • Scotand and N. Ireland
    • Patron saint's day is an official holiday
    • Not all shops and businesses in Scotland do not close
    • Events are held across Scotland, N. Ireland and the rest of the country especially if there are a lot of people of Scottish, N. Irish and Irish heritage
  • England and Wales
    • Patron saint's day are no longer public holidays but are still celebrated
    • Parades and small festivals are held over the 2 countries
11 of 64

Customs and Traditions: Main Christian Festivals

  • Christmas Day ( December 25 )
    • Celebration of the birth of Jesus
    • A public holiday
    • Many Christians go to church on Christmas Eve (December 24) or on Christmas Day itself
    • Celebrated by:
      • spending day at home and eating a special meal (often includes roast turkey, Christmas pudding and minced pies)
      • give gifts, sends cards, decorate a tree and decorate their houses
    • Very young children believe that Father Christmas ( aka Santa Claus ) brings them presents during the night before Christmas
  • Boxing Day December 26 )
    • Day after Christmas and a public holiday
12 of 64

Customs and Traditions: Main Christian Festivals

  • Easter
    • Takes place in March or April
    • Marks the death of Jesus Christ on Good Friday and his rising from the dead on Easter Sunday
    • Good Friday and the following Monday called Easter Monday are public holidays
    • Also celebrated by people who are not religious
    • Easter eggs - chocolate eggs that is a symbol of new life
  • Lent
    • 40 days before Easter
    • Begins on Ash Wednesday
      • Christians are marked with an ash cross on their forehead that symbolises death and sorrow for sin
    • Time when Christians reflect and prepare for Easter
    • People would fast traditionally and today, people give up something, like their favourite food
    • Shrove Tuesday or Pancake Day
      • Day before Lent where people eat pancakes made up of eggs, fat and milk before fasting
13 of 64

Customs and Traditions: Other Religious Festivals

  • Diwali
    • Falls in October or November and lasts for 5 days
    • Often called the Festival of Lights
    • Celebrated by Hindus and Sikhs
    • It celebrates the victory of good over evil and the gaining of knowledge
    • There's a famous celebration of Diwali in Leicester
  • Hannukah
    • It's in November or December and lasts for days
    • It is to remember the Jews' struggle for religious freedom
    • On each day of the festival, a candle is lit on a menorah, a stand of 8 candles, to remember the story of the festival where oil that should have lasted only a day so for eight 
  • Eid al-Fitr
    • Celebrates the end of Ramadan where Muslims have fasted for a month
    • They thank Allah for giving them strength to complete the fast
    • The date changes every year
    • Muslims attend special services and meals
14 of 64

Customs and Traditions: Other Religious Festivals

  • Eid ul Adha
    • Remembers that the prophet Ibrahim was willing to sacrifice his son when God ordered him to.
    • It reminds Muslims of their own commitment to God
    • Animals are sacrificed during this festival
    • In Britain, this must be done in a slaughterhouse
  • Vaisakhi or Baisakhi
    • Sikh festival which celebrates the founding of Khalsa, the Sikh community
    • Celebrated yearly on April 14 with parades, dancing and singing 
15 of 64

Customs and Traditions: Other Festivals & Traditio

  • New Year (January 1)
    • Public holiday
    • Celebrated on December 31 or New Year's Eve
    • Hogmanay - December 31 for Scottish people, and for some Scots, it is a bigger holiday than Christmas
    • January 2  - public holiday
  • Valentine's Day (February 14)
    • Lovers exchange cards and gifts or people send anonymous cards to someone they secretly like
  • April Fool's Day (April 1)
    • People play jokes on each other until midday
  • Mothering Sunday (Mother's Day)
    • Sunday 3 weeks before Easter
    • Children send cards or buy gifts for their mothers
  • Father's Day
    • 3rd Sunday in June
    • Children send cards or buy gifts for their fathers
16 of 64

Customs and Traditions:Other Festivals & Tradition

  • Halloween (October 31)
    • An ancient festival and has roots in the pagan festival to mark the beginning of winter
    • Youngsters dress up in scary costumes and play trick or treat
    • People give them treats to stop playing tricks on them
  • Bonfire Night (November 5)
    • People set off fireworks at home or in special displays
    • This has been ongoing since 1605, when a group of Catholics led by Guy Fawkes failed their plan to kill the Protestant king with a bomb in the Houses of Parliament
  • Remembrance Day (November 11)
    • Commemorates those who died fighting for the UK and its allies
    • Originally commemorates the dead of WWI which ended on 11 November 1918
    • At 11.00 am, 2 minute silence is observed and wreaths are laid at the Cenotaph in Whitehall, London
  • Bank Holidays
    • Public holidays each year when banks and many businesses are closed for the day.
    • At the beginning of May, late May or early June, and in August.
    • Battle of Boyne anniversary is also a public holiday.
17 of 64


  • There are several sports that are particularly popular in the UK
  • Major stadiums used for sporting events:
    • Wembley Stadium in London
    • Millenium Stadium in Cardiff
  • Swimming pools, tennis courts, football pitches, dry ski slopes and gymnasiums are provided by local governments and private companies.
  • Famous sports that began in Britain:
    • CricketFootballLawn tennisGolf and Rugby
  • UK hosted the Olympic Games in 1908, 1948 and 2012
  • Main Olympic site for 2012 Games - located in Stratford, East London
  • British team - finished 3rd in the medal table
  • Paralympic Games - hosted in UK in 2012
    • Have their origin in the work of Dr Sir Ludwig Guttman, a German refugee, at Stoke Mandeville Hospital, Buckinghamshire
    • He developed new methods of treatement for people with spinal injuries and encouraged patients to take part in exercise and sport.
18 of 64

Sport: Noble British Sportsmen and Women

  • Sir Roger Bannister (1929 - )
    • First man in the world to run under 4 minutes in 1954
  • Sir Jacke Stewart (1939 - )
    • Scottish former racing driver who won the Formula 1 world championship 3x
  • Bobby Moore (1941-1993)
    • Captained the English football team that won World Cup in 1966
  • Sir Ian Botham (1955 - )
    • Captained the English cricket team
    • Holds number of English Test cricket record, for batting and for bowling
  • Jane Torvill (1957 - ) and Christopher Dean (1958 - )
    • Won gold medals for ice dancing at the 1984 Olympic Games
    • 4 consecutive world champions
19 of 64

Sport: Noble British Sportsmen and Women

  • Sir Steve Redgrave (1962 - )
    • Won gold medals in rowing in 5 consecutive Olympic games
    • One of Britain's greatest Olympians
  • Baroness Tanni-Grey Thompson (1969 - )
    • Athlete who uses wheelchair
    • Won 16 Paralympic medals incl. 11 gold medals in races over 5 Paralympic Games
    • Won London Marathon 6x and broke 30 world records.
  • Dame Kelly Holmes (1970 - )
    • Won 2 gold medals for running in 2004 Olympic Games
    • Has held a number of British and European records.
  • Dame Ellen MacArthur (1976 - )
    • Yatchswoman
    • Became the fastest person to sail around the world single-handed in 2004.
20 of 64

Sport: Noble British Sportsmen and Women

  • Sir Chris Hoy (1976 - )
    • Scottish cyclist
    • Won 6 gold and 1 silver Olympic medals
    • Won 11 World championship titles
  • David Weir (1979 - )
    • Paralympian who uses wheelchair
    • Won 6 gold medals over two Paralympic Games
    • Won London Marathon 6x
  • Bradley Wiggins (1980 - )
    • Cyclist
    • In 2012, he became the First Briton to win Tour de France
    • Won 7 Olympic medals, inc. gold medals in 2004, 2008, and 2012 Olympic games
21 of 64

Sport: Noble British Sportsmen and Women

  • Mo Farah (1983 - )
    • British distance runner, born in Somalia
    • Won gold medals in 2012 Olympics for 5,000 metres and 10,000 metres
    • First Briton to win the Olympic gold medal in the 10,000 metres
  • Jessica Ennis (1986 - )
    • Won 2012 Olympic gold medal in heptathlon including 7 different track and field events
    • Holds a number of British athletics records
  • Andy Murray (1987 - )
    • Scottish tennis player
    • Won in 2012 men's singles in the US Open
    • First British man to win a singles title in a Grand Slam tournament since 1938
    • 2012 - Won Olympic gold and silver medals, runner-up in the men's singles at Wimbledon 
  • Ellie Simmonds (1994 - )
    • Paralympian who won gold medals for swimming at 2008 and 2012 Paralympic Games
    • Youngest member of Brit team at 2008 Games
    • Holds number of world records
22 of 64

Sport: Cricket

  • Cricket
    • Originated in England
    • Now played in many countries
    • Can last up to 5 days but still result in a draw
    • Idiosyncratic nature of the game and complex laws - reflect the best of British character and sense of fair play
    • Expressions that you might come across that passed into everyday usage:
      • Rain stopped play
      • Batting on a sticky wicket
      • Playing a straight bat
      • Bowled a googly
      • It's just not cricket
    • Most famous competition:
      • the Ashes - a series of Test matches played bet. England and Australia
23 of 64

Sport: Football

  • Football
    • UK's most popular sport
    • First professional football clubs  - formed in late 19th century
    • England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland  - each have separate leagues in which clubs representing different towns and cities compete
  • English Premier League - Many of the best players compete here
  • UEFA (Union of European Football Association) Champions League
    • Many UK teams compete against other teams from Europe
  • Most towns and cities have a professional club
  • Each country in the UK has its own national team that competes with other national teams across the world in tournaments such as FIFA (Fideration Internationale de Football AssociationWorld Cup and the UEFA European Football Championships
  • World Cup of 1966 - England's only international tournament victory
24 of 64

Sport: Rugby

  • Rugby
    • Originated in England in the early 19th century
    • 2 different types of rugby which have different rules:
      • union
      • league
    • Both have separate leagues and national teams in England, Scotland, Wales and N. Ireland (who play with the Irish Republic)
    • Most famous rugby union competition:
      • the Six Nations Championship - between England, Ireland, Scotland, Wales, France and Italy
    • The Super League - most well-known rugby league (club) competition
25 of 64

Sport: Horse Racing

  • Horse Racing
    • Very long history of horse racing, with evidence of events taking place in the Roman times
    • The sport has a long association with royalty
    • Famous horse-racing events:
      • Royal Ascot  - 5 day race meeting in Berkshire attended by members of the Royal Family
      • the Grand National - at Aintree near Liverpool
      • the Scottish Grand National - at Ayr
    • National Horseracing Museum - in Newmarket, Suffolk
26 of 64

Sport: Golf, Tennis

  • Golf
    • Modern game of golf - can be traced back to 15th century Scotland
    • Played socially and professionally
    • St Andrews in Scotland - home of golf
    • The Open Championship - only Major tournament held outside US
      • Hosted by different golf course every year
  • Tennis
    • Modern tennis evolved in England in the late 19th century
    • First tennis club - founded in Leamington Spa in 1972
    • Most famous tournament hosted in Britain:
      • The Wimbledon Championships
        • Takes place yearly at the All England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club
        • Oldest tennis tournament in the world and the only Grand Slam event played on grass
27 of 64

Sport: Water Sports

  • Sailing
    • Popular in the UK
    • Reflects our maritime heritage
    • Sir Francis Chichester
      • British sailor
      • First person to sail single-handed around the world in 1966/67
    • Sir Robin Knox-Johnston
      • First person to sail single-handed around the world without stopping 2 years after Sir Francis Chichester
    • Most famous sailing event:
      • Cowes - on the Isle of Wight
  • Rowing
    • Also popular and can be a leisure activity or a competitive sport
    • Popular yearly race on the Thames between Oxford and Cambridge Universities
28 of 64

Sport: Motor Sports, Skiing

  • Motor sports
    • Long history for cars and motor cycles
    • Motor-car racingstarted in 1902
    • UK - continues to be the world leader in the development and manufacture of motor-sport technology
    • Formula 1 Grand Prix events
      • Held in UK yearly
      • Recent British winners:
        • Damon Hill
        • Lewis Hamilton
        • Jenson Button
  • Skiing
    • Most people go abroad to ski or also dry ski thoroughout the UK
    • Skiing on snow - possible in winter
    • 5 Ski centres in Scotland, as well as Europe's longest dry ski slope near Edinburgh
29 of 64

Arts and Culture: Music

  • Music
    • Important part of Brit culture, with a rich and varied heritage
    • Ranges from classical music to modern pop
  • The Proms
    • 8-week summer season of orchestral classical music that takes place in various venues, inc. the Royal Albert Hall in London
    • Organised by BBC since 1927
  • Henry Purcell (1659-95)
    • Organist at Westminster Abbey
    • Wrote church music, operas and other pieces
    • Developed a British style distinct from elsewhere in Europe
    • Continues to be influential on British composers
30 of 64

Arts and Culture: Music

  • George Frederick Handel (1685 - 1759)
    • German born composer who became a British citizen in 1727
    • Wrote the Water Music for King George I and Music for the Royal Fireworks for his son, George II
    • Also wrote an oratorio, Messiah, which is sung regularly by choirs, often at Easter time
  • Gustav Holst (1874 - 1934)
    • Wrote The Planets - suite of pieces themed around the planets of the solar system
    • Adapted Jupiter - part of the Planets suite, as the tune for I vow to thee my country, a popular hymn in Briiths churches
  • Sir Edward Elgar (1857 - 1934)
    • Born in Worcester, England
    • Best known for the Pomp and Circumstance Marches
    • March No 1 (Land of Hope and Glory) - usually played at the Last night of the Proms at the Royal Albert Hall
31 of 64

Arts and Culture: Music

  • Ralph Vaughan Williams (1872 - 1958)
    • Wrote music for orchestras and choirs
    • Strongly influenced by traditional English folk music
  • Sir William Walton (1902 - 83)
    • Wrote marches for the coronation of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth II
    • Probably his best known works:
      • Facade - which became a ballet
      • Belshazzar's Feast - intended to be sung by a large choir
  • Benjamin Britten (1913-76)
    • Best known for his operas, Peter Grimes and Billy Budd
    • Wrote A Young Person's Guide to the Orchestra - based on a piece of music by Purcell and introduces the listener to the various different sections of an orchestra
    • Founded the Aldeburgh festival in Suffolk
32 of 64

Arts and Culture: Music

  • Folk music, jazz, pop and rock - flourished in Britain since the 20th century
  • Britain has had impact on popular music worldwide due to wide use of English language, UK's cultural links with many countries and British capacity for invention and innovation
  • 1960s
    • British pop music has made cultural contributions to life in the UK
    • The Beatles and The Rolling Stones - influenced music here and abroad
    • Brit Pop music has been innovated
      • Punk movement in the late 1970s
      • Boy and girl bands in the 1990s
  • Venues that hosts music events
    • Wembley Stadium
    • The O2 in Greenwich, south-east London
    • Scottish Exhibition and Conference Centre (SECC) in Glasgow
33 of 64

Arts and Culture: Music

  • Famous festivals include:
    • Glastonbury
    • the Isle of Wight Festival
    • V Festival
  • National Eisteddfod of Wales
    • Annual cultural festival which includes music, dance, art and original performances largely in Wales
    • Includes number of important competitions for Welsh poetry
  • Mercury Music Prize
    • Awarded each September for the best album from the UK and Ireland
  • The Brit Awards
    • Annual event that gives awards in a range of categories such as British group and best British solo artist
34 of 64

Arts and Culture: Theatre

  • London's West End
    • Known as Theatreland
  • The Mousetrap
    • Murder-mystery play by Dame Agatha Christie
    • Has been running in the West End since 1952 and has had the longest initial run of ny show in history
  • Gilbert and Sullivan
    • Wrote comic operas, often making fun of popular culture and politics
    • Operas include:
      • HMS Pinafore
      • The Pirates of Penzance
      • The Mikado
35 of 64

Arts and Culture: Theatre

  • Andrew Lloyd Webber
    • Wrote music for shows
    • Collaborated with Tim Rice on:
      • Jesus Christ Superstar
      • Evita
    • Also wrote Cats and The Phantom of the Opera
  • Pantomime
    • Produced usually at Christmas time
    • Based of fairy stories
    • Light-hearted plays with music and comedy
    • Dame - traditional character which is a woman played by a man
    • There's also a pantomime horse or cow played by 2 actors in the same costume
36 of 64

Arts and Culture: Theatre

  • Edinburgh Festival in Scotland
    • Happens every summer
    • Series of different arts and cultural festivals
    • Edinburgh Festival Fringe
      • aka The Fringe
      • Biggest and most well-known 
      • It is a showcase of mainly theatre and comedy performances
      • Often shows experimental work
  • Laurence Olivier Awards
    • Named after British actor, Sir Laurence Olivier, later Lord Olivier
      • Best known for his roles in various Shakespeare plays
    • Variety of categories:
      • Best Director, Best Actor and Best Actress
37 of 64

Arts and Culture: Art

  • Middle Ages
    • Most art had a religious theme particularly wall paintings in churches and illustrations in religious books
    • Much was lost after Protestant Reformation but wealthy families began to collect other paintings and sculptures
  • Painters working in Britain in the 16th and 17th centuries from abroad:
    • Hans Holbein
    • Sir Anthony Van Dyck
  • British artist, particularly those painting portraits and landscapes, became well known from the 18th century.
  • Most-well known galleries in UK:
    • In London: The National Gallery, Tate Britain, Tate Modern
    • In Cardiff: The National Museum
    • In Edinburgh: The National Gallery of Scotland
38 of 64

Arts and Culture: Art

  • The Turner Prize
    • Named after Joseph Turner
    • Established in 1984 and celebrates contemporary art
    • 4 works are shortlisted yearly and shown at Tate Britain before the winner is announced
    • Recognised as one of the most prestigious visual art awards in Europe
    • Previous winners include:
      • Damien Hirst
      • Richard Wright
  • Notable British Artist - SEE PAGE 83
39 of 64

Arts and Culture: Architecture

  • Middle Ages
    • Great Cathedrals and churches were built, many still exist today
    • E.g.
      • Cathedrals in Durham, Lincoln, Canterbury and Salisbury
    • The White Tower in Tower of London
      • a Norman castle keep, built on the orders of William The Conqueror
  • Landowners from countryside became richer, the house of wealthy became more elaborate.
    • Great country houses such as Hardwick Hall in Derbyshire were built
  • 17th century
    • Inigo Jones - took inspiration from classical architecture to design the Queen's House at Greenwich and the Banqueting House in Whitehall
    • Sir Christopher Wren - helped develop a British version of the new St Paul's Cathedral after the Great Fire
40 of 64

Arts and Culture: Architecture

  • 18th century
    • Robert Adam
      • Scottish architect who influenced the development of architecture in the UK, Europe and US.
      • Designed the inside decoration and the building itself in great houses such as Dumfries House in Scotland.
      • His ideas influenced architects in cities such as Bath, where the Royal Crescent was built.
  • 19th century
    • Medieval gothic style became popular again
    • Public buildings were built in this style:
      • The Houses of Parliament  and St Pancras Station
      • Town halls in cities such as Manchester and Sheffield.
41 of 64

Arts and Culture: Architecture

  • 20th century
    • Sir Edwin Lutyens - had influence throughout British Empire
      • Designed New delhi to be the seat government in India
      • Was responsible for many war memorials worldwide including Cenotaph in Whitehall
      • Cenotaph - site of the annual Remembrance Day service attended by the Queen, politicians and foreign ambassadors
  • Modern British Architects:
    • Sir Norman FosterLord Richard RogersDame Zaha Hadid
  • Development of architecture, garden design and landscaping played an important role in UK
  • 18th century:
    • Lancelot 'Capability' Brown - designed the grounds around country houses so that the landscape appeared to be natural, with grass, trees and lakes
    • Gertrude Jekyll - often worked with Edwin Lutyens to design colourful gardens around the houses he designed.
    • The Annual Chelsea Flower Show - showcases garden design from Britain and around the world.
42 of 64

Arts and Culture: Fashion and Design

  • Thomas Chippendale
    • Designed furniture in the 18th century
  • Clarice Cliff
    • Designed Art Deco ceramics
  • Sir Terence Conran
    • 20th century interior designer
  • Leading fashion designers
    • Mary Quant
    • Alexander McQueen
    • Vivienne Westwood
43 of 64

Arts and Culture: Literature

  • Several British writers who have won the Nobel Prize in Literature
    • Sir William Golding - novelist
    • Seamus Heaney - poet
    • Harold Punter - playwright
  • Popular fiction writers
    • Agatha Christieher detective stories are read worldwide
    • Ian Fleming - introduced James Bond
  • The Lord of the Rings by JRR Tolkien
    • Was voted the country's best-loved novel in 2003
  • The Man Booker Prize for Fiction
    • Awarded annually for the best fiction novel written by an author from the Commonwealth, Ireland or Zimbabwe since 1968
    • Past winners: Ian McEwan, Hilary Mantel and Julian Barnes
44 of 64

Arts and Culture: British Poets

  • Beowulf
    • Anglo-Saxon poem
    • Tells of its hero's battles against monsters and is still translated into modern English
  • Middle Ages poems
    • Geoffrey Chaucer's Canterbury Tales
    • Sir Gawain and the Green Knight - about one of the knights at the court of King Arthur
  • Shakespeare - wrote many sonnets (poems which must be 14 lines long)
  • As Protestant ideas spread, some poets wrote poems inspired by their religious views.
    • One of these was John Milton - wrote Paradise Lost
  • William Wordsworth - inspired by nature
  • Sir Walter Scott - wrote poems inspired by Scotland and the traditional stories and songs from the area on the borders of Scotland and England
  • Poetry in 19th century was very popular, with poets such as:
    • William Blake, John Keats, Lord Byron, Percy Shelley, Alfred Lord Tennyson, and Robert and Elizabeth Browning
45 of 64

Arts and Culture: British Poets

  • Wilfred Owen and Siegfried Sassoon
    • Inspired to write about their experiences in the First World War
  • Recent poets that are popular:
    • Sir Walter de la Mare
    • John Masefield
    • Sir John Betjeman
    • Ted Hughes
  • Some of the best-known poets are buried or commemorated in Poet's Corner in Westminster Abbey
46 of 64

Leisure: Gardening

  • Lots of people have gardens at home and spends time gardening
  • Some rent additional land called an allotment where they grow fruit and vegetables
  • Famous gardens in UK:
    • In England:
      • Kew Gardens, Sissinghurst, Hidcote
    • In Scotland
      • Crathes Castle, Inveraray Castle
    • In Wales
      • Bodnant Castle
    • In Northern Ireland
      • Mount Stewart
  • Countries that make up UK all have flowers and sometimes worn on National Saints' days:
    • England - rose
    • Scotland - thistle
    • Wales - daffodil
    • Northern Ireland - shamrock
47 of 64

Leisure: Shopping, Cooking and Food

  • Town centres - name of the central shopping area in a town or a city
  • Undercover shopping centres - also common, and these might be in town centres or on the outskirts of a town or city.
  • Many are open 7 days a week, although trading hours on Sundays and public holidays are generally reduced
  • Many towns also have markets on one or more days a week, where stallholders sell a variety of goods
48 of 64

Leisure: Cooking and Traditional Foods

  • People in UK enjoy cooking food and have some people over.
  • There's a variety of food because of the country's rich cultural heritage and diverse population.
  • Traditional foods:
    • England - Roast beef with potatoes, vegetables, Yorkshire pudding (batter that is baked in the oven) and other accompaniments. Fish and chips are also popular.
  • Wales - Welsh cakes - a traditional Welsh snack made from flour, dried fruits and spices, and served either hot or cold
  • Scotland Haggisa sheep's stomach stuffed with offfal, suet, onions and oatmeal
  • Northern Ireland - Ulster fryfried meal with bacon, eggs, sausage, black pudding, white pudding, tomatoes, mushrooms, soda bread and potato bread.
49 of 64

Leisure: Films

  • British Film Industry
    • First film shown publicly in 1896
    • Film screenings became popular after
    • British film makers became famous for clever special effects
  • Sir Charles (Charlie) Chaplin
    • Famous for his silent movies for his tramp character
    • One of Brit actors to make a career in Hollywood
  • British studios
    • Flourished in 1930s
    • Sir Alexander Korda and Sir Alfred Hitchcock - left for hollywood and remained an important film director until his death in 1980
  • British movies during WWII
    • e.g. In Which We Serve - played important part in boosting morale
    • Sir David Lean and Ridley Scott - British directors who became successful in UK and internationally.
50 of 64

Leisure: Films

  • 1950s and 1960s
    • High point for British comedies including:
      • Passport to Pimlico
      • The Ladykillers
      • Carry On
  • Harry Potter and James Bond - 2 highest-grossing film franchises are both produced in UK
  • Ealing Studios - oldest continuously working film studio facility in the world
  • Britain continues to be strong in special effects and animation. One example:
    • Nick Park's work - won 4 Oscars for his animated films, including three for fims featuring Wallace and Gromit
51 of 64

Leisure: Films

  • Actors such as Sir Laurence OlivierDavid NivenSir Rex Harrison and Richard Burton starred in wide variety of popular films
  • Recent British actors to have won Oscars: Colin FirthSir Anthony HopkinsDame Judi DenchKate Winslet and Tilda Swinton
  • The annual British Academy Film Awards, hosted by the British Academy of Film and Television Arts (BAFTA), are the British equivalent of the Oscars
52 of 64

Leisure: Some Famous British Films

  • Famous British films and their directors
  • The 39 Steps (1935) - Alfred Hitchcock
  • Brief Encounter (1945) - David Lean
  • The Third Man (1949) - Carol Reed
  • The Belles of St Trinian's (1954) - Frank Launder
  • Lawrence of Arabia (1962) - David Lean
  • Women in Love (1969) - Ken Russell
  • Don't Look Now (1973) - Nicolas Roeg
  • Chariots of Fire (1981) - Hugh Hudson
  • The Killing Fields (1984) - Roland Joffé
  • Four Wedding and a Funeral (1994) - Mike Newell
  • Touching the Void (2003) - Kevin MacDonald
53 of 64

Leisure: British Comedy

  • Medieval kings and rich nobles had jesters who told jokes and made fun of people in the Court.
  • Shakespeare included comic characters in his plays
  • 18th century
    • Political cartoons attacking prominent politician and sometimes the monarch or other Royal Family members - became increasingly popular
  • 19th century
    • Satirical magazines began to be published
    • Punch - most famous and was published for the first time in the 1840s.
  • Today
    • Political cartoons are published in newspapers and magazines such as Private Eye continue the tradition of satire.
54 of 64

Leisure: British Comedy

  • British music hall - common form of variety theatre until television became the leading form of entertainment in the UK
  • Morecambe and Wise - performed in 1940s and 1950s in music halls as well as in televisions
  • Situation comedies or sitcoms - often look at family life and relationships in the workplace, are still popular
  • That Was The Week in 1960s, Spitting Image in 1980s and 1990s - satire shows
  • Monty Python's Flying Circus in 1969 introduced a new type of progressive comedy.
  • Stand-up comedy - solo comedian talks to a live audience, has become popular again in recent years
55 of 64

Leisure: Television and Radio

  • Coronation Street and Eastenders - Popular regular soap operas
  • Scotland - have some Scotland-specific programmes and there is also a channel with programmes in Gaelic language
  • Wales - There is a Welsh-language channel
  • Northern Ireland - There are programmes specific to Northern Ireland and some programmes broadcast in Irish Gaelic
  • TV, computer and other medium which can be used for watching TV  must have a television licence
    • One licence covers all of the equipment in one home
    • When people rent different rooms in a shared house and each has a separate tenancy agreement, those people must each buy a separate licence
    • Over 75s can apply for free TV licence
    • Blind people can get 50% discount
    • There's a fine up to £1000 if you watch TV but don't have a TV licence
56 of 64

Leisure: Television and Radio

  • British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC)
    • It is a British public service broadcaster providing TV and radio programmes
    • It is largest broadcaster in the world
    • The only wholly state-funded media organisation that is independent of government
    • Money from TV licences is used to pay BBC
  • Radio stations in the UK
    • Some broadcast internationally, others in certain cities or regions
    • There are radio stations that play certain types of music and some broadcast in regional languages such as Welsh or Gaelic
  • BBC radio stations - funded by TV licences and other radio stations are funded through adverts
57 of 64

Leisure: SNS, Pubs and Night Clubs

  • SNS such as Facebook and Twitter are widely used to stay in touch with friends, organise social events, share photos, videos and opinions.
  • Pubs and Night clubs
    • Part of the social culture in UK
    • Pub quizzes are popular
    • Pool and darts are traditional pub games
    • 18 - Legal age to buy alcohol but people under that age may be allowed in some pubs with an adult
    • When they are 16, people can drink wine or beer with a meal in a hotel or restaurant (inc. eating areas in pubs) as long as they're with someone over 18
58 of 64

Leisure: Betting and Gambling

  • There are many betting and gambling places in the UK
  • You must be 18 or over to bet or gamble
  • National Lottery
    • Draws are made every week
    • You can enter by buying a ticket or scratch card
    • People under 16 are not allowed to participate in the National Lottery
59 of 64

Leisure: Pets

  • It is against the law to treat a pet cruelly or to neglect it
  • All dogs in public places must wear a collar showing the name and the address of the owner
  • The owner is responsible for keeping the dog under control and for cleaning up after the animal in a public place
  • Vaccinations and medical treatement for animals are available from veterinary surgeons (vets).
  • There are charities which may help people who cannot afford to pay a vet
60 of 64

Place of Interest

  • UK - has large network of public footpahts in the countryside
  • There are many opportunities for mountain biking, mountaineering and hill walking
  • There are 15 national parks in England, Scotland and Wales
    • They are areas of protected countryside that everyone can visit, and where people live, work and look after the landscape
  • Museums in UK - small community museums to large national and civic collections.
  • Landmarks in UK are mostly open to public (generally for a charge)
  • Many parts of the countryside and places of interest are kept open by the National Trust in England, Wales and Northern Ireland, and the National Trust for Scotland. Both charities work to preserve important buildings, coastline and countryside in UK
  • The National Trust
    • Funded in 1895 by 3 volunteers
    • There are now more than 61,000 volunteers
61 of 64

Places of Interest: UK Landmarks

  • Big Ben
    • Nickname for the great bell of the clock at the Houses of Parliament
    • Over 150 years old
    • The clock tower is named Elizabeth Tower in honour of Queen Elizabeth II's Diamond Jubilee in 2012
  • The Eden Project
    • Located in Cornwall, south west England
    • Its biomes, which are like giant greenhouses, house plants from all over the world
    • It is also a charity which runs environmental and social projects internationally
  • Edinburgh Castle
    • The castle is a dominant feature of the skyline in Edinburgh, Scotland
    • Has long history dated back to the early Middle Ages
    • It is looked after by Historic Scotland, a Scottish government agency
62 of 64

Places of Interest: UK Landmarks

  • The Giant's Causeway
    • Located on the north-east coast of N. Ireland
    • It is a land formation of columns made from volcanic lava
    • Formed about 50 million years ago
    • There are many legends behind its formation
  • Loch Lomond and the Trossachs National Park
    • Covers 720 square miles (1865 sq km) in the west of Scotland
    • Loch Lomond - largest expanse of fresh water in mainland Britain and probably the best known part of the park
  • London Eye
    • Situated on the southern bank of the River Thames
    • Is a ferris wheel that is 443ft (135m) tall
    • Originally built as part of UK's celebration of the new millenium and continues to be an important part of New Year celebrations
63 of 64

Places of Interest: UK Landmarks

  • Snowdonia
    • National park in Wales
    • Covers an area of 838 square miles (2,170 sq km)
    • Most well-known landmark is Snowdon, the highest mountain in Wales
  • Tower of London
    • Built by William The Conqueror after he became king in 1066
    • Tours are given by the Yeoman Warders, aka Beefeater, who can tell visitors about the building's history
    • The  Crown Jewels are kept here
  • The Lake District
    • England's largest national park
    • Covers 885 square miles (2,292 sq km)
    • Famous for its lakes and mountains
    • Popular with climbers, walkers and sailors
    • Windemere - Biggest stretch of water
    • TV viewers voted Wastwater as Britain's favourite view in 2007
64 of 64


No comments have yet been made

Similar History resources:

See all History resources »See all Life in the UK Test resources »