- RIBS ARE MOVED FORWARDS AND UPWARDS
- DIAPHRAM IS PULLED DOWN
- INCREASES IN SIZE AS IT SUCKS AIR INTO LUNGS
- RIBS ARE PULLED DOWN AND BACK
- DIAPHRAM IS PULLED UP
- DECREASES THE SIZE OF THORDAIC CAVITY
- SQUEEZES OUT AIR FROM LUNGS
STEPS FOR BREATHING IN
1. AIR ENTERS THE NASAL PASSAGES.
2.PASSES DOWN TO THE TRACHEA
3. ENTERS THE LUNGS.
4. BELOW THE LUNGS STRATCHING ACROSS THE BASE OF THE CHEST IS THE DIAPHRAM
5. THE RIBS AND DIAPHRAM MAKE AN AIRBAG IN WHICH THE LUNGS ARE PROTECTED.
- Gas exchange is the delivery of oxygen from the lungs to the bloodstream, and the elimination of carbon dioxide from the bloodstream to the lungs. It occurs in the lungs between the alveoli and a network of tiny blood vessels called capillaries, which are located in the walls of the alveoli.
MAXIMUM AMOUNT OF AIR THAT CAN BE BREATHED IN AND OUT
AMOUNT OF AIR BREATHED IN AND OUT WHILE AT REST
NUMBER OF BREATHS THAT CAN BE TAKEN IN 1 MINUTE
THE PROCESS OF ABSORBING OXYGEN
THE TOTAL VOLUME OF AIR BREATHED IN AND OUT IN ONE MINUTE
THE SMALL AMOUNT OF AIR LEFT IN THE LUNGS AFTER A FULL BREATH OUT
FUNCTIONS OF THE VERTEBRAL COLUMN
- SUPPORT: the collumn holds up the head, keeps the body upright and transfers weight down to the pelvis.
- MOVEMENT: the bones and joints acting together allow movement in all directions.
- PROTECTION: inside each vertebra are bundles of nerves that make up the spinal cord. this controls all body movement and functions.
FOUR TYPES OF BONE
- LONG BONES: femur
- SHORT BONES: phlanges
- FLAT BONES: scapular
- IRREGULAR BONES: vertabrae
- HINGE: allows movement in one plane only, eg. the elbow
- PIVOT: allows rotation at the neck
- BALL AND SOCKET: allows for as full range a range of movement as possible, eg. the hip
- SADDLE: allows movement in two directions, eg. bae of thumb
MOVEMENT OF JOINTS
- FLEXION: when a joint closes
- EXTENSION: when a joint opens
- ABDUCTION: when a body part moves away from the centre of the body
- ROTATION: when a bone moves around a pivot joint