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Amateurs

  • Based on the idea that participation is for love and enjoyment rather than money
  • leisure activity in their own time
  • no payment
  • their choice to take part

May do it to:

  • release stress
  • keeps body healthy
  • opportunity to socialise
  • train and improve their skills

May gain monry indirectly for participating as payment to amateurs is illegal

How they can make a living:

  • expenses- travel
  • gifts- cash
  • scholarships
  • sponsorship
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Professional

  • sport is their job
  • receive financial reward for participating and how they make their living
  • professionals train on a full time basis
  • majority sign contracts

How they earn money:

  • wages- agents assist their salaries
  • bonuses- success
  • appearance money- paid extra to play in certain comps
  • winnings- prize money
  • transfer fees
  • media work
  • sponsorship
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Open competitions

  • invite all performers to compete from all backgrounds and genders

professionals wins = prize money

amatuer wins = medal

  • Improved sports facilities and increase in leisure time means that amateurs can commit more to their sports
  • have more time to increase their facilities and skills
  • some amateurs do turn proffessional- as they become more successful their desire to win grows
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Media and sponsorship

E.g. David Beckham is sponsored by H and M and Calvin Klein

Definition- Providing financial rewards to performars for advertising a product

Advantages to the sponsorship:

  • people become aware to the brand
  • brands=associated with success
  • attracts more customers
  • finacial gain through tax relief
  • worldwide exposure
  • media coverage
  • linking brand with certain sport

Dsiadvantages to the sponsorship:

  • if athletes performance decreases, so may sales
  • relies on image of athlete
  • unpopular sports which are sponsored may not bring in as much money
  • indivivual behaviour= negative effect
  • athletes become injured= limits investment return 
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media and sponsorship

Advantages to performer:

  • top equipment and clothing
  • atheltes become more well known- face of the brand
  • pays for coaching
  • provides transport
  • provides a living
  • receive extra products
  • relieves financial concern

Disadvantages to performer:

  • if brand becomes unpopular so could the athlete
  • sponsorship may be short term
  • have to fulfil other demands
  • limit flexibility- have to stick to contract
  • may have to advertise when not competiting
  • only wear clothes from their company
  • always have to appear/perform at their best to keep sponsorship
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Media

Media- the ways that information is conveyed to the general public

Types of media:

  • TV
  • Radio
  • Internet
  • Newspaper

Newspaper- tabloids and broadsheets

  • broad appeal and male dominated sports
  • cover and analyse sport in more depth, offer more variety of sport

TV

  • Broadcast instantaneous sporting action to a large audience around the world
  • TV has helped rarely watched sports increase viewings
  • Raised performance earnings
  • Pressure for the athletes to compete at highest level and to win
  • TV can dramatise problems within the sporting world
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Types of TV

Terrestrial- financed by revenue from TV licence sales

Satellite- financed by monthly subscription (sky, BT, virgin)

What does the independent televission commission do?

  • Organises the allocation of sporting events between terrestrial and satellites
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Gender inequalities, Radio and the internet

Gender Inequalities

  • can be reflected by the media
  • presenters

Radio

  • started to report live events
  • listen to commentators on various matches

The Internet

  • Holds various information, resources and services which are up to date
  • The influence of the internet on sport has been phenominal
  • Watch highlights directly on your phone
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How media helps understanding

  • camera angles
  • pundits knowledge
  • newspaper column
  • replays- slow motion
  • technology
  • tactics
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How media and commercialisation affects sport

  • rules have been introduced to speed up the action - prevent boredom
  • changes made in scoring create more excitement
  • breaks are provided in play so sponsors can advertise
  • format of comps changed
  • some competiton seasons have been extended
  • 4th official has been introduced to help make decisions
  • media coverage= inc participation
  • can hype up events
  • interactive tech- viewers can follow certain players
  • action replays- more detailed analysis
  • athletes can be put under pressure to perform even when injured
  • businesses now have more control of sport
  • commentators have an influence over spectators
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Different types of output

  • Informative programmes- news (sky, bbc)
  • Educational programmes - documentary learn about skills and tactics
  • Instructibe programmes- - cricket tests matches
  • Entertaining programmes- quiz shows
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Directors and writers influence

  • they chose the highlights to watch
  • usually the best of the action and any contentious moments
  • can be over analysed by pundits- specific bad moments more talked about than the game
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How does TV cover sport?

  • Live sporting programmes (e.g. Ford super sunday)
  • Highlight programme (e.g. match of the day)
  • Documentaries (e.g. David beckhams 7 continents)
  • News bulletins (e.g. sky sports news channel)
  • Dedicated channels (e.g. F1 or chelsea TV)
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How can TV promote sport and physical activity?

  • offering competitons
  • inviting stars as guests on programmes
  • advertising services connected to the sport
  • role models performing
  • showing live coverage
  • including analysis
  • offering dedicated sports channels
  • viewing of minority sports 
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Reasons for the increase of the leisure industry

Why is there more leisure time?

  • overall less time is spent in the workplace
  • increase in number of people working from home
  • increase in technology- replacing people - reduces hours available for employees
  • improved technology- labor saving devices around home - less time needed for housework
  • increase of part time work
  • paid holidays- time and money to spend in leisure
  • rise in unemployment - concessions are made reduced fees so they can participate

User groups:

local authorities often provide courses to specific user groups:

  • unemplyed
  • mother and toddler
  • shift workers
  • disabled
  • senior citizens
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Physical recreation

  • Taking part in a physical acitivty for recreation, rewards the participation intrinisically rather that extrinisically

Intrinsic- how a person feels as a result of physical persuit and not about league position

Extrinsic- financial gain/how many medals they've won

Intrinsic rewards:

  • satisfied with the personal challenge
  • enjoyment
  • fulfilled
  • mentally satisfied
  • feeling good about the activity
  • motivated to take part
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Outdoor recreation

  • activities that are associated with a challenge in the natural environment

Examples:

  • mountain activities
  • climbing
  • life saving
  • sailing
  • rowing

OR - geared towards fun and relaxation however there is an element of danger

  • must have specialist knowledge
  • appropriate experience to the challenge
  • ability to use the equipment
  • make accurate judgements under pressure
  • be physically able to deal with conditions
  • be prepared to use a contingency plan
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Lifetime sports

  • sports that can be carried out throughout life

These sports tend to be non-contact sports e.g. golf

Benefits of persuing a sport throughout life:

  • continue to reach new physical and mental levels
  • puts into practice knowledge
  • work at their own pace
  • keeps fit
  • keeps mind focussed
  • keeps in social contact with others of similar interests
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Leisure and recreation

  • helps a person achieve a balanced diet/lifestyle
  • can chose between comptetive sport/non-competitve
  • participate throughout your life

Recreation-  time to relax, do something active and healthy and aspect of leisure. Activities are for fun and can be individual or in a group

Examples- pilates, aerobics, dancing, yoga, cycling

Leisure- the proportion of the day a person has when they are free from everyday duties of life. voluntary/ for pleasure

leisure time- sleeping, eatnig, bodily functions

Benefits:

  • general fitness- inc
  • suitable for all ages
  • participation can continue throughout life
  • social benefits
  • can be completed at indvidual pace 
  • being non-competitive can be appealing
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Technology in Sport

Advances in sport:

  • slow motion
  • apps which allow analysis of performance
  • 4th officials

Advances:

  • equipment
  • facilities
  • sports science helps coaching and training methods 

Equipment:

  • new materials e.g. development of tennis rackets
  • advances in nutrition
  • new playing surfaces

Disadvantages to the people who cannot afford it

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Technology in swimming

Avida wrist watches monitor times and allow coaches to communicate with swimmers

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Assistance for officials

  • cameras
  • video reference
  • 4 way microphone system
  • instant replays
  • stump microhpones- cricket
  • hawkeye- cricket

Dart fish:

  • analyse techniques in slow motion
  • correct technique
  • comapre to fastest tim
  • immdeiate preview
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Various products analyse individual and team perfo

  • give instant feedback
  • use visual support to help understanding
  • record performances which helps comparisons to be made
  • can be applied to different sports
  • replays are controllable for more complex analysis

Heart rate monitors:

Stand alone/linked to a computer

  • speed
  • effort
  • work rate

Footpads

Attached to the laces of an athelete to record:

  • speed 
  • distance
  • pace
  • level of performance
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Types of competitions

Ladder

can be organised in a way that they:

  • offer an appropriate level of ability competiton
  • provide immediate promotion
  • provide easy ways to understand rankings 
  • provide clear directions about how to progress

Leage

can be ogranised in a way that they:

  • produce fair results over time
  • provide the opportunity to make amends for mistakes
  • are good for consistent performers
  • offer a variety of formats
  • can offer play offs
  • can accomodate large numbers
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Types of competitions

Knock outs

Can be organised in a way that they:

  • randomly draw teams each round- winner goes to next round
  • seed certain teams to spice up finals
  • have a secondary draw for losing team
  • offer an element of surprise/risk
  • draw teams for round one only- seeding determines oppositions after

Advantages:                                                  Disadavantages:

  • fast                                                          team may only play once/no second chances
  • cater for large number                                good team may get knocked out early
  • high excitments- loses are excluded          some teams will get more games
  • relatively easy to organise/run                    could be unfair
  • teams play at their best from start
  • comp=quick
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