Skeletal system

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Synovial Joints

LIGAMENT- Tough band of slightly elastic connective tissue connecting bone to bone and stabalising joints during movement. 

SYNOVIAL FLUID- Lubricating liquid contained within the joint cavity reducing friction and norishing articular cartilage

ARTICULAR CARTILAGE- Smooth tissue which covers the surface of articulating bones absorbing shock and allowing friction free movement

JOINT CAPSULE- A fiborus sac with an inner synovial membrane enclosing and strengthening joints and secreting synovial fluid

BURSA- Closed fluid filled sac found where tendons rub over bones reducing friction between tendons and bones

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Planes of Movement

Sagittal plane, Vertically divides the body into left and right. 

- Flexion/extension 

-Dorsi/Plantar-flexiuon 

Frontal plane, vertically divided the body into anterior and posterior. 

- Adduction/Abduction

Transverse plane, horizontally divides the body into upper and lower.

- Horizontal Extensio/Flexion 

- Rotation 

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Ball and Socket Joints

- For example the shoulder and hip

- Allow movement along the sagittal, frontal and transverse plane 

Movement patterns include:

- Flexion/Extension 

- Adduction/Abduction

- Horizontal Flexion/Extension

- Medial and lateral rotation 

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Hinge Joints

- For example the elbow, knee and wrist 

- Allow movement along the sagittal plane 

Movement patterns include:

- Flexion/Extension 

- Dorsi/Plantar-flexion 

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Condyloid Joints

- For example the wrist

- Allow movement along the sagittal and frontal plane 

Movement patterns include:

- Flexion/Extension 

- Adduction/Abduction

 

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