Section Two: Giolitti's Reforms

  • Created by: naomi
  • Created on: 22-04-13 17:26

Giolitti's Reforms


Hoped an increase in wealth and prosperity would make liberal institutions more acecptable and secure and after 1900 there was a big industrial expansion where benefits reached ordinary people

Real wages rose 25% by 1913 and there were laws to control child and female labour

Social insurance and pension schemes were established and suffrage given to all men over 30

This aimed to unify all social groups by satisfying moderate Catholics and socialists but led to upset liberals who feared increased church or worker influence.

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Giolitti's Reforms


Tried to make the state more neutral in industrial disputes and not automatically turn against workers

For socialists this was not enough

Also upset elites like industrialists who saw this new attitude as the state siding with workers

Feared a growth in socialism, which would reduce their power and profits due to increased worker rights

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Giolitti's Reforms


Growing role of the state led to more civil servants who joined the petty bourgeoisie of small traders and shopkeepers

Worried about growth of socialism and the large power of big businesses

Feared the weakness of the government, demonstrated by Giolitti's lack of authority and attempts to appease all groups and so sought an alternative form of government

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Giolitti's Reforms


Used foreign expansion to try to win over nationalists by attacking Libya in 1911

Italy was victorious, but peasants were upset as they were conscripted to fight in a war they didn't understand and had no interest in and had to pay higher tax

Increased socialist criticism.

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Giolitti's Reforms


Tried to encourage Italian identification with the state by passing laws to help ordinary citizens like increased suffrage

Undermined by the corrupt political system of transformismo that did not represent people

Disillusioned and felt this was just another scheme by the "master of the underworld"

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Giolitti's Reforms


Despite reforms there was mass unrest in 1914

June - 3 demonstrators were shot causing riots in major sities

Radicals seized control of government buildings and in "Red Romanga" two areas declared themselves independent

Period became known as "Red Week" even though socialists failed to organise a successful strike

It scared the bourgeoisie and showed Giolitti's policy to try to absorb workers had failed 

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Giolitti's Reforms


Money to help south not nearly enough 

Catholics angry

Destitution of peasants and Liberal's inability to solve it 

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