- Created by: Sophie.Elysia
- Created on: 04-06-17 15:08
- c. 250,000BP (European and Asian ice ages). New species developed and adapted to the new enviroment.
- Developed a range of scrapers and hand axes.
- Burried their dead.
- Could they speak? (Large implications for our understanding of the superiority of modern humans). Evidence of Neanderthal physiological capability- were their brains capable of using it?
- Eliminitaed by Homo-Sapiens? Or inter-breeding?
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Out of Arfica 1: c.1 million years ago
- Homo erectus (immediatley pre- modern humans) leaving Africa c.1 million years ago.
- Replacing all other hominid species via migration.
- Facilitated by climate change or adaption to new enviroments.
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- 98.4% of our DNA as modern humans is identical to that of a chimpanzee.
- Around 5.4mya (Million years ago) there was diversification into early hominid forms.
- New discoveries in such a controversial area can have a massive impact on the state of knowledge and our sense of where we came from.
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Out of Africa 2
- Oldest evidence for Homo Sapiens= c.130,000BP- remains in east and southern Africa.
- African 'Eve' c.195,000mya- Omo Valley, Ethiopia (skull)
- c.90,000BP- Israel, possible overlap with Neanderthals?
- Homo-Sapiens=lighter bones.
- Probably had language, ritual and art from and early stage.
- Oldest evidence for art: Ocre from Blombos cave, South Africa c.70,000BP.
- Pace of change and creativity seems to increase dramatically around c.50,000BP (the 'human revolution'-cognitive, abstract and symbolic thought- origins of modern human thinking?).
- Paleolithic cave art e.g. Lascaux France, c.30,000BP.
- Earliest modern humans in British Isles: 'The Red Lady of Paviland', Wales c.20,000BP (Actually male).
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Evidence for migration into Europe
- c.195,000BP- Omo Valley, Ethiopia (Hominin fossils).
- c.100,000BP- Skhul cave, Israel (Skull)
- c.80,000BP- Grotte des Pigeons, Morrocco (Shell beads)
- c.70,000BP- Blombos cave, South Africa (Carved red ocre)
- c.60,000BP- Ueagizli, South Turkey (Shell beads)
- c.40,000BP- Dolni Vestonice, Czech Republic
- c.40,000BP- Cave of Pestera Cu Oase (Skull)
- c.30,000BP- Lascaux cave, France (Cave paintings)
- c.20,000BP- Red Lady of Paviland, Wales
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'Replacement' or 'Noah's Arch' theory
- Modern Humans all originating in a small population in Africa.
- Complete and comparitively rapid replacement across Europe.
- African 'Eve' c.200,000mya
- Popular theory because sees all modern non- African populations as descended from a singular 'tribe' of a few hundred who left Southern Africa around 90,000BP.
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Multi- regional or 'Candelabra' Model
- Sees modern humans around the world as having developed from regional Homo erectus populations.
- Some regional differences between modern human populations around the world seem to derive from/ reflect differences between earlier hominid species.
- Homo sapiens could have developed in parallel in Africa, Asia and possibly Europe.
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Modern Humans and Neanderthals?
- Neanderthals- c.250,000BP
- Cave of Pestera Cu Oase, Romania c.40,000BP: Human skull; oldest human remains in Europe.
- 50% Neanderthan DNA in chromosomes- interbreeding?
- Did Neanderthals and modern humans interbreed? Is this site the only place they did?
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Evidence of Art- Was there a Creative Explosion?
- Grotte des Pigeons, Morrocco c.80,000BP- oldest evidence of art- shell beads and traces of red ocre.
- Blombos cave, South Africa c.70,000BP- red ocre carving
- Ueagizli, Southern Turkey c.60,000BP- shell beads
- UPPER PALEOLITHIC CREATIVE EXPLOSION c.40,000BP
- Dolni Vestonice, Czech Republic c.40,000BP- Venus figurine and exploded ceramic figures
- Lascaux cave, France c.30,000BP- cave paintings and symbolism- Lascaux birdman
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The Upper Palaeolithic Human Revolution
- Greater variety of tools-bone and antler working
- Art, Music and symbolic behaviour e.g. cave art
- Expansion of homo-sapiens into harsher climates
- Elaborate burials e.g. Dolni Vestonice
- Biological/ neurological change c.50,000BP? OR facilitated by growing population?
- Changes are ascribed to homo-sapien adaption.
- Greater efficiency through division of labour.
- Tents, clothing and storage.
- Tools and weapns made better- large prey could now be killed at a distance.
- Around 5x more people survived into 'old age'- accumulation of knolwedge.
- The 'Grandmother revolution' allowed younger adults to specialise- more time.
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The Upper Palaeolithic Human Revolution- Gradual
- Some evidence for use of symbolism earlier than the Eurasion 'revolution'- Key difference = pace of change.
- Much of the evidence could have been organic in nature.
- Grotte des Pigeons, Morrocco c.80,000BP- shell beads
- Skhul Cave, Israel c.100,000BP
- Ucagizli, Southern Turkey c.60,000BP- perforated shells- markers of modern humans on way to Europe?
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Upper Palaeolithic human revolution- Dolni Vestoni
- Carpathian Mountains, Czech Republic
- Open-air site, near natural 'gate' in the mountains- interception of migratory animals.
- Venus figurine- similarto those found at Willendorf- similar designs all over Europe; shared culture?
- Mammoth bones, lithic manufacture.
- Manufacture of red ocre powder- for burials.
- Exploded ceramic figures- deliberate act/ ritual aspect of manufacture?
- Triple burial- 3 young adults and symbolic use of red ocre over female's pelvice- Broken marriage laws?
- Burial of a child- fox-tooth necklace and covered by mammoth shoulder blade.
- Woman in her 40s burried with the body of a fox- 'grandmother revolution'- time and resources freed up for social development.
- 'Aggregation site'- behavoural and social changes in c.40,000-20,000BP may have been facilitated.
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