Key Words for Classification
Autotrophic: can make their own food eg. plants use chlorophyll found in their chloroplasts to react with the light to produce sugar.
Saprophytic: feed on the dead and decaying material eg. fungi and decomposing bacteria.
Heterotrophic: cannot make their own food by hunting or grazing ie a giraffe eats leaves off of trees, polar bears eat fish.
Multicellar: more than one cell.
Unicellar: just one cell.
Spores: how fungi and bacteria reproduce.
How You Classify A Species?
Order of Classification:
Order eg. primate
Animalia-multicellar, heterotrophic feeders, no cell walls, complex cell structure with nucleus.
Plantea-multicellar, cell walls made of cellulose, autotrophic feeders, complex cell structure with nucleus.
Fungi-multicellar, cell walls not made of cellulose, saprophytic feeders, complex cell structure with nucleus.
Protocista-mostly unicellar (few are multicellar), complex cell structure with nucleus
Prokarotea-unicellar, simple cell structure with no nucleus
Scientists do not believe that viruses are alive therefore, there is no kingdom for them. They enter living cells and make the cell make new copies of viruses. However, they don't grow or feed like other organisms so we cannot say they are 'living'.
Key Words for Vertebrate Classification
Oviparous- egg laying.
Viviparous- live birth.
Homeotherms- maintain own body temperature.
Pikilotherm- body temperature depends on surroundings.
A species is defined as a group of organsims that can interbreed to produce fertile offspring.
Some living things rae very similar in the special parts they have or the things they do. These are called features. When living things havr a lot of features in common they are in a group called a species.
Species have many features in common and are fertile whereas a hybrid (a mix of two different species) is infertile like a mule. If the chromosomes do not add up the animal is infertile.
Hybrid- two different species that produce infertile offspring. Exception liger and wholphin.
Keywords for Species
Speciation- when a new species is 'created' eg. species on one side of a mountain have evolved to the same species on the otherside of the mountain eg. flinches (galapogos).
Ring Species- neighboruing populations of the same species may have slightly different characteristics but can still interbreed with fertile offspring. Neighbouring species can all breed, but the two ends of the 'chain' are too different and cannot breed.
Variation: is the existance of variety and differences within or between species. On the surface organisms look identical but on closer inspection show a great deal of variation in their genetics, behaviour and lifestyle.
- This relies on mutations within species.
- Only the fittest individuals will survive to breed.
- This variation is acted upon by selection pressures.
- This is the way that evolution via natural selection operates.
Environmental Variation: for example skin colour, height weight accents
Continous and Discontinous Variation
Examples include height and weight.
- Data is normally presented in a normal distribution bell-shaped curve.
- The full range of variables between 2 extreme values.
Examples include sex, blood groups, colour of eyes.
- Known as discrete variables.
- Data usually presented as a bar graph.
- Variables are assigned to clealy defined categories or district group.
Becoming a Family
- Each body cell has 2 sets of information for all of your characteristics.
- One set is inherited from your mother the other is from your father.
- In total you have 46 chromosomes in each cell except for your sex cells.
- The combination of alleles determines what our characteristics will be.
- Alleles can either be recessive or dominant.
- Dominant has a bigger effect over recessive.
- You recieve 23 chromosomes from your mum and 23 from your dad.
Inheritance Key Words
Phenotype: these are physical traits eg freckles.
Genotype: they are the alleles that represent he phenotype eg Hh.
Allele: the lettter used to describe the trait eg b or h.
Dominant: the big letter, it will always show if present.
Recessive: the small letter, it will only show if dominant is not present.
Punnet Square: the diagram to represent the probability of a trait.
Homozygous: you have the same alleles eg bb.
Heterozygous: you have different alleles eg Bb.
Mendel was a monk and he bred a white and purple pea plant together and the f1 generation were all the purple and there was no white. He wondered how white flowers could disappear but then come back in the f2 generation. In peaplants purple is dominant and white are recessive.
Genetic Disorders Key Words
Sickle Cell Disease
Family Pedigree Chart
Cystic Fibrosis Causes and Symptoms
2 recessive allels are inherited
Cc= carrier (can pass on the disease but no symptoms)
cc= has the disease
- Poor nutrition
- Fertility Problems
- Bacteria can grow easily and cause infections
- A thick, sticky mucus lines the lungs and digestive system.
Cystic Fibrosis Treatments
Cystic fibrosis is a genteic disease and is most comon in white of northern european desent.
The condition is much less common in other ethnic groups.
Sickle Cell Anaemia Causes and Symptoms
2 rece**ive alleles are inherited
**- has disease
- Chronic pain
- Shortne** of breath
- Papilations (irregular heartbeat)
Sickle Cell Anaemia Treatments
- Stem cell transplant
- Bone marrow transplant
Sickle cell anaemia is a serious inherited blood disorder where the red blood cells, which carry oxygen around the body, develop abnormally.