Traditional Tsarist Policy
- Had always existed, but was made official by state
Popular policy with nobility
- Pobedonostsev + Army wanted to see repression of minorites and security of regime and borders. Keen on policy which reduced religious minority influence
Fear Of Minorities
- Poles had been known to rebel : !863 + 1830 despite being granted constitution and parliament
- Other 'disloyal' groups included 'Jews'
Maintance of political control
- 1881 assassination made the emperor weary of minorities and wish to favour natives
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Policies in Poland and Finland
- Destruction of non-Russian denominations prevalent in Poland and Finland
- Finish Senate reorganised- weakened
- Russian coinage and postal service enforced
- 1885- Polish national bank closed
- Education: everything taught in Russian (exp languages & religion), Polish literature translated
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Policies in Georgia and Ukraine
- 1883- All works in Ukrainian language forbidden
- 1884- All theatres in Ukrainian provinces closed
- Polish Churches persecuted
- 1892- Georgian uprisings quashed mercilessly.
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Anti Semitic Pograms
- Jews suffered the most during Russification
- Rooted in Religion and belief that they were responsible for Alex II's murder
- Inflammatory Slogans such as "Beat the Yids- Save Russia" circulated
- Anti- Jewish lynchings began in 1887 in 'Pale Settlement' where they were easy targets
- 16 major cities affected: property burnt, businesses destroyed, women *****. Many were put to death
Anti semitic legislations
- 1882 May laws: Jews forbidden to settle in cities of fewer than 10 thousand people, with the exception of those in agriculture
- Jews forbidden to do business on Sundays and Christian holidays.
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- Convinced Tsar and government that potential internal enemies were being cast out e.g. thousands of minorities forced out of Moscow
- Example of strenth of the autocracy- Sent strong message about its desire to maintian control
- Proved popular with nobility and the Church.
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- Jews turned to revolutionary groups such as the Bund formed (1897) and nationalist groups such as the Jewish nationalist Zionist group.
- Met stiff resistance in Georgia and amongst Muslims Tartars fuelled by their centres of worship.
- Destroyed loyalty of previously faithful minorities e.g. the Armenian and the Finns had been treated well under Alex II
- Long term proved more dangerous that the supposed threat Lynch: "At the time when Russia badly needed cohesion and unity, she decided to treat half of her subjects as inferiors and potential enemies."
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