Russia (1881-1914) AQA AS: Russification


  • Motivation
  • Russification Polices
  • Successes
  • Failures
  • Created by: Joshua
  • Created on: 23-05-10 14:31


Traditional Tsarist Policy

  • Had always existed, but was made official by state

Popular policy with nobility

  • Pobedonostsev + Army wanted to see repression of minorites and security of regime and borders. Keen on policy which reduced religious minority influence

Fear Of Minorities

  • Poles had been known to rebel : !863 + 1830 despite being granted constitution and parliament
  • Other 'disloyal' groups included 'Jews'

Maintance of political control

  • 1881 assassination made the emperor weary of minorities and wish to favour natives
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Policies in Poland and Finland

  • Destruction of non-Russian denominations prevalent in Poland and Finland
  • Finish Senate reorganised- weakened
  • Russian coinage and postal service enforced
  • 1885- Polish national bank closed
  • Education: everything taught in Russian (exp languages & religion), Polish literature translated
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Policies in Georgia and Ukraine

  • 1883- All works in Ukrainian language forbidden
  • 1884- All theatres in Ukrainian provinces closed
  • Polish Churches persecuted
  • 1892- Georgian uprisings quashed mercilessly.
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Anti Semitic Pograms

  • Jews suffered the most during Russification
  • Rooted in Religion and belief that they were responsible for Alex II's murder
  • Inflammatory Slogans such as "Beat the Yids- Save Russia" circulated
  • Anti- Jewish lynchings began in 1887 in 'Pale Settlement' where they were easy targets
  • 16 major cities affected: property burnt, businesses destroyed, women *****. Many were put to death

Anti semitic legislations

  • 1882 May laws: Jews forbidden to settle in cities of fewer than 10 thousand people, with the exception of those in agriculture
  • Jews forbidden to do business on Sundays and Christian holidays.
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  • Convinced Tsar and government that potential internal enemies were being cast out e.g. thousands of minorities forced out of Moscow
  • Example of strenth of the autocracy- Sent strong message about its desire to maintian control
  • Proved popular with nobility and the Church.
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  • Jews turned to revolutionary groups such as the Bund formed (1897) and nationalist groups such as the Jewish nationalist Zionist group.
  • Met stiff resistance in Georgia and amongst Muslims Tartars fuelled by their centres of worship.
  • Destroyed loyalty of previously faithful minorities e.g. the Armenian and the Finns had been treated well under Alex II
  • Long term proved more dangerous that the supposed threat Lynch: "At the time when Russia badly needed cohesion and unity, she decided to treat half of her subjects as inferiors and potential enemies."
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