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To what extent was the Tsarist system of government modified in the years 1881-1914?
"wasted years" in the solution of Russia's internal problems
Neither of the Tsars wanted to reform
wanted modernization while keeping the autocracy intact.
primarily for military purposes. In many ways it undermined the autocrac
It created a middle class, it required taxes to pay for all those railways etc which strained
fueled the discontent of those who didn't benefit.
created literacy amongst the peasants and so made them open to new, often revolutionary
Reign of Alexander III 1881-1894 "Nationalism,Orthodoxy and Autocracy"
had watched his father die in a St Petersburg Palace.
As a result of the assassination would not consider granting a parliament.
tightened censorship of the press and sent thousands of revolutionaries to Siberia.
"full faith in the justice and strength of the autocracy" that he had been entrusted
Any liberal proposals in government were quickly dismissed.
Judges and officials who were sympathetic to Liberal ideas were removed from
His political ideal was a nation containing only one nationality, one language, one
religion and one form
A policy of Russification was introduced.
imposing the Russian language and Russian schools on the Germans, the Poles and
the Finns and all other minority nationalities.
Schools were also forced to raise their fees to prevent the poorer classes gaining an
In 1897 the illiteracy rate was 79%
Universities lost most of the freedoms gained under Alexander II and censorship was
He strengthened the security police, reorganizing it into an agency known as the
He encouraged the Orthodox Church at the expense of other religions especially the
It was an offence to convert from the Orthodox Church to another faith. Divorce
could only be granted through a church court
The Orthodox Church was given control of primary schools.
persecuted the Jews. Many blamed them for the assassination of Alexander II
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Over six hundred anti-Jewish measures were introduced.
the number who could attend university was limited.
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Zemstva -industrial council was encouraged and helped by government - introduced
extensive improvements in public health and a system of health insurance for workers.
In 1908 a program announced to bring about compulsory universal education within ten years.
· now that the parties were split, and the war with Japan had ended, the Tsar could use the
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