- Created by: philet17
- Created on: 19-05-17 17:03
WORKING CLASS PROBLEMS
- Living conditions poor: cramped, no privacy, rooms divided by curtains
- High unemployment after 1900 due to economic depression
- Had to work long hours 12+
- Working conditions dangerous, no health and safety - many died from incidents at work
- No social insurance scheme
- Strikes illegal and trade unions unsupported - no change to conditions
- 40% of buildings timber
- 40,000 prostitutes
- 7700 had typhus in 1908
- 7.4 people per apartment on average
- 2/3 buildings wooden
- 16% unskilled 8% unemployed
- Illiterate 75% men, 50% women
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- 77% peasants
- Stripe farming inefficient - less food, less money
- Lack of machinery - less food, less money
- Bad harvests led to starvation - 400,000 deaths in 1891
- Not enough land per peasant
- Debt, squalor, drunkness, STDs
- Disease widespread - typhus , diphtheria
- Poor, illiterate, uneducated
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- Over 100 different ethnic groups - religions and languages
- Russification deeply resented
- Judaephobia - pogrom 1903 - loots, assaults, ropes, murders of large local jewish populations by mobs
- Inter-ethnic rivalries - Armenians v Turkic Azeris in Baku
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MIDDLE CLASS/ LIBERAL PROBLEMS
- No political influence
- No sign of reform from Nicholas II
- University students banned from holding political meetings
- Over 70,000 involved in zemstva of 1905 - they wanted influence
- Zemstva's work held back by government officials
- 1901 Student demonstration in St P. Cossacks charged at the crowds- 13 killed, 100s injured, 1500 arrested and imprisoned with no trial.
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ACTIONS OF NICHOLAS II
- Pogroms against Jews
- Zemstvas has no influence
- 1900 - officials criticising government purged
- Middle class unhappy they had no say
- Increased industrialisation and urbanisation led to economic and social for peasants and workers
- Bad leader who made poor decisions, easily influenced
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- Deliberately picked quarrel with Far-Eastern neighbour Japan
- Russia wanted to expand her influence in Far East - Korea, Manchuria
- 1904 - Japan attacked Port Arthur
- Japanese defeated Russia in every major confrontation
- Main Russian Army defeated in Mukden - forced to seek peace
- Treaty of Portsmouth gave Korea and Port Arthur to the Japanese, Russian forces left manchuria
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- Worker Strike - 7th January 1905, 105,000 workers
- 9th January - demonstration by Father Gapon, march on Winter Palace peacefully
- Armed troops tried to disperse them peacefully
- Then shot into the crowds (women and children at the front)
- 200 died, 800 wounded
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- Liberals - elected government to end tsar - Milyukov leads 'Union of Unions'
- Russian political parties emerged from the shadows after censorship laws were relaxed in 1905.
- The SRs sought land reform and changes to agrarian policy, a position that made them popular with peasants.
- The large size of their party, however, invited differences of opinion, divisions and factionalism.
- Social Democrats led by Lenin wanted an end to tsarism and equality - split to Mensheviks and Bolsheviks (uber-revolutionary) 1903 all Marxists.
- The Kadets were the largest liberal-democratic party, favouring a British-style constitutional system.
- The Octobrists were moderates and conservatives who were loyal to tsarism and supportive of the changes outlined in the October Manifesto.
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- Russian chief minister in the govt 1881 – 1905.
- Had a strong influence over Alexander III and Nicholas II.
- Held the position of Director General of the Synod which controlled the Russian Orthodox Church.
- Very conservative and believed that autocratic monarchy was the only way forward for Tsarist Russia.
- Known as the ‘Grand Inquisitor’ and blocked social reform.
- Was the person most associated with the anti-Jewish policies.
- Many people disliked him because he personified the obstructions in the way of Russia’s necessary political and social reform.
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- Finance Minister between 1893 – 1903 and wanted to modernise using state capitalism.
- What did Witte do?
- Invited foreign experts such as engineers into Russia to offer advice.
- 1894 – Interest rates on peasant loans were cut and payments were extended to 1896.
- He encouraged foreign countries to invest in Russian Industry = large loans from abroad
- He paid the government’s loans with indirect taxes on the urban poor and the peasants.
- He imposed high import taxes on foreign goods
- Taxes on the poor and Russian grain to invest back into industry
- How successful were Witte’s policies?
- Russian railways doubled and the Transiberian Railway (1891 – 1904) was built.
- Economic growth was false and hard to keep up.
- Industry grew by 8% annually from the 1890s but mainly in areas such as iron and coal.
- Witte ignored agriculture which led to him being dismissed after the 1905 Revolution.
- He only took taxes from the poor which made their lives worse and taxes on Russian grain caused peasant lives to worsen.
- He was working in isolation and without the support of much of the rest of the govt.
- He was limited by the Tsar and Russia didn't have many entrepreneur.
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