Rocks and Scenery ~ Rock Types ~AQA Geography

Key words and their meanings for Igneous, Sedimentary and Metamorphic rocks.

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  • Created by: renzo0800
  • Created on: 13-04-12 15:42

Igneous Rocks

Formation: 

  • MOLTEN rock from the MANTLE COOLS and SOLIDIFIES.
  • Rocks formed BELOW surface in BATHOLICS = PLUTONIC or INTRUSIVE
  • Rocks formed ABOVE = VOLCANIC or EXTRUSIVE

Characteristics:

  • CRYSTALLINE
  • Size of crystal depends on speed of solidifying
  • FAST SOLIDIFYING = SMALL CRYSTALS
  • SLOW SOLIDIFYING = BIGGER CRYSTALS
  • Molten rock UNDERGROUND = MAGMA
  • Molten rock ON THE SURFACE = LAVA

Examples:

  • PLUTONIC ~ GRANITE
  • VOLCANIC ~ BASALT
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Sedimentary Rocks

Formation: 

  • DEBRIS is washed into RIVERS, then TRANSPORTED to the sea.
  • It sinks to the BOTTOM where over MILLIONS OF YEARS sediment builds up, crushing it into rock through a process called LITHIFICATION.

Characteristics: 

  • Broken down ROCKS, PLANTS, ANIMAL REMAINS
  • Found in layers called STRATA
  • The ONLY rock type that can contain FOSSILS

Examples:

  • SANDSTONE
  • LIMESTONE
  • CLAYS
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Metamorphic rocks

Formation: 

  • Other rocks (eg Igneus) that have been subject to great HEAT or PRESSURE

Characteristics:

  • Can be found near to VOLCANOES or MAGMA INTRUSIONS 
  • HARD rocks

Examples:

  • Limestone becomes MARBLE
  • CLAY becomes SLATE 
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Comments

sian

thank you :)

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