- MOLTEN rock from the MANTLE COOLS and SOLIDIFIES.
- Rocks formed BELOW surface in BATHOLICS = PLUTONIC or INTRUSIVE
- Rocks formed ABOVE = VOLCANIC or EXTRUSIVE
- Size of crystal depends on speed of solidifying
- FAST SOLIDIFYING = SMALL CRYSTALS
- SLOW SOLIDIFYING = BIGGER CRYSTALS
- Molten rock UNDERGROUND = MAGMA
- Molten rock ON THE SURFACE = LAVA
- PLUTONIC ~ GRANITE
- VOLCANIC ~ BASALT
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- DEBRIS is washed into RIVERS, then TRANSPORTED to the sea.
- It sinks to the BOTTOM where over MILLIONS OF YEARS sediment builds up, crushing it into rock through a process called LITHIFICATION.
- Broken down ROCKS, PLANTS, ANIMAL REMAINS
- Found in layers called STRATA
- The ONLY rock type that can contain FOSSILS
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- Other rocks (eg Igneus) that have been subject to great HEAT or PRESSURE
- Can be found near to VOLCANOES or MAGMA INTRUSIONS
- HARD rocks
- Limestone becomes MARBLE
- CLAY becomes SLATE
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