aqa geography case studies

hey! these are just some basic notes on the case studies for  aqa geography! There are ones for restless eath, urban environment, weather and climate, tourism and coasts, i haven't included any for population sorry

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  • Created by: Hannah
  • Created on: 10-06-12 16:35
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Mount st Helens:
Date of eruption: 18th may 1980
Causes: lies on destructive Pb, tremors and movement for 3 months. Magma travelled up several
vents and reached crater but was blocked by previous eruption, formed a cryptodome on side of
Primary effects: large mudslides from melted glacier- largest landslides ever recorded. Pyroclastic
flows at speeds of 100mph-700mph. ash cloud circumnavigated world in 2 weeks. 57 died.
Secondary: economic- loss of farm land. Money lost in jobs- loggers. Repairs needed for homes,
bridges etc.
Monitoring/ predicting: magma building up on north side of volcano, bulge growing 6ft a day, 300ft
wide by eruption. 5 mile radius no go zone round volcano.
What makes a super volcano? Large crater consisting of 3 calderas- huge magma chamber.
Attractions of Yellowstone: hot springs and geysers, scenery, forests and wildlife
Effects of eruption: locally- in close vicinity you would be blown apart or suffocate in pyroclastic flow.
Area buried under 5m+ of ash, massive forest fires from lightning. Internationally- massive ash flows,
cover farmlands (hard for vegetation to grow turn day to night)globally- temperatures cool down by
10F. Sulphur dioxide will form a shell type case around the atmosphere blocking the sun's rays,
meaning crops won't grow. Many people will die of famine.
Izmit earthquake, turkey
Date: 17th August 1999, 3:02am lasted for 45 seconds
Causes: pressure had been building up on the fault line for a century. The plate margin Eurasia and
Africa slipped causing massive tremors.
Primary effects Secondary effects
17, 000 died Oil refinery exploded- huge fires
Buildings collapsed Disease from sewage
Sewage pipes destroyed Roads, transport and homes damaged
Pylons damaged- phone networks down
Response: teams from 47 different countries sent aid. Mountain rescuers saved people. Rescue
workers had limited medical assistance (hospitals too overcrowded) Officials wanted to bulldoze
buildings to stop spread of disease from those trapped.
San Francisco earthquake:
Date: 17th October 1989 at 5:04am for 15 seconds, 6.9 on Richter scale

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Cause: pressure been building up along San Andreas Fault, it slipped causing earthquake
Effects: 67 dead, 6000 homes destroyed. NIMITZ HIGHWAY- double decker highway, upper deck
collapsed on top of lower deck crushing people and cars- Bridge was badly designed. OLD
BUILDINGS- not built to withstand earthquakes. MARINA BAY DISTRICT- built on sand and debris form
1905 earthquake, water from burst pipes got into foundations of house turning the sand to jelly.
Responses: army sent to keep order, received money from govt.…read more

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Festivals of all cultures promoted.
BEDZED (Bedding ton zero energy development)
Built in 2002. It is a sustainable mixed use development: community, home, work. It has many energy
saving features:
segregated recycling bins
reduce water usage- dual flush toilets
use less electricity- natural daylight
bio membrane reactor- cleans water used in sinks for toilet water
wind turbines- for generating electricity
Transport links- near bus stops and tram and train stations, car share, bike sheds.…read more

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During the afternoon of Monday 16th August 2004, the village of Boscastle was hit by rain. 200mm of
rain fell in 24hrs.
Area affected: river burst its banks, harbour damaged and car park flooded.
Immediate responses: flood water pumped people rescued, food and medical supplies flown in
Long term responses: 2005- shops opened, 2006- new sewage system, 2007- bridge re-built,
2008- harbour resurfaced.…read more

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Kenya, mass tourism
Benefits: Kenya relies on inflows of foreign exchange, tourist spend money in local cafes- money
goes to locals, tourist revenues are 15% of GNP
Negatives of mass tourism:
economic social Environmental
Visitor numbers fluctuate Conflicts between tribes and Costal degradation of reefs
2007- tribal violence, houses Masai forced off land for parks Wildlife parks- mini buses
torched in riots destroying earth (making big
UK advised people hot to go 2% of money spent in Masai People poach animals
to Kenya…read more

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Antarctica has become a destination for extreme holidays. Only scientists live on Antarctica for
9months. Tourists are interested in conservations; tourists are not allowed to take rocks etc. as it is a
fragile environment.
Positive impacts: social- educational improves understanding. Economic- investment and local
development of area. Environmental- awareness for conservation
Negative: social- turns Antarctica into a theme park. Human- risk of maritime accidents (threatening
sea animals etc.) environment- localised destruction of flora and fauna.…read more

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Keyhaven marshes:
Keyhaven marshes is an area of salt marsh formed in the le of Hurst castle spit. Contains a range of
habitats including grassland, scrub, salt marsh and reed bird. Variety means rich diversity.
Problems: salt marsh is retreating by 6m a pear. Salt marsh is under threat from the breached Hurst
castle spit during severe storms. Marsh exposed to the sea by 80m. Increasing demands for tourism
is producing damage by pollution.…read more



I have my Physical Geography exam tomorrow and these notes are fantastic for a bit of last minute refreshing and cramming! Thank you so much!

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