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Hera at Paestum

Olympia- Temple of Hera
 

  • Built in 550BC
  • Doric temple
  • Basic capital/abacus
  • Echinus rounded
  • 6-16 colums
  • 2 steps
  • 2 columns on the pro naos and opisthodomos
  • Dedicated to Hera 
  • Once shared 2 statues one of Hera and one of Zeus
  • Inside is made from limestone
  • Upper part is made of unbaked bricks
  • The Anta had wooden clading
  • It once had a terracotta disk
  • It has stucco on the limestone to make it look like marble 
  • The columns were once wooden and were slowly replaced 
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Hera at Olympia

Olympia- Temple of Hera

 

  • Built in 590BC
  • Doric temple
  • Basic capital/abacus
  • Echinus rounded
  • 6-16 colums
  • 2 steps
  • 2 columns on the pro naos and opisthodomos
  • Dedicated to Hera 
  • Once shared 2 statues one of Hera and one of Zeus
  • Inside is made from limestone
  • Upper part is made of unbaked bricks
  • The Anta had wooden clading
  • It once had a terracotta disk
  • It has stucco on the limestone to make it look like marble 
  • The columns were once wooden and were slowly replaced 
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Ceres/Athena at Paestum

Temple of Athena/Ceres at Paestum

  • 500 BC
  • No rear porch
  • Had a sacrificial alter called a temenos
  • It has 2 stairs leading to the roof
  • Steps leading to the cella 
  • 3 Steps to the pro naos
  • 6-13 column ratio
  • Cella not divided
  • Metopes painted
  • It had triglyphs
  • Doric columns
  • It had entasis 
  • Terracotta inscription saying Minerva 
  • Highest point in the city 
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Hera 2/ Poseidon

Temple of Hera 2/ Temple of Poseidon at Paestum

  • Built in 450 BC
  • 6-14 column 
  • 3 step stylobyte 
  • It used stucco 
  • Archaic traits less pronounced 
  • Columns have a slight entasis 
  • Frieze is complete, undamaged tryglyphs and metopes 
  • Pediments without sculpture, pediment remains
  • No decoration
  • Columns double stacked in cella 
  • 24 flutes not 20 
  • Columns made from limestone 
  • It had antefixes 
  • Roof was terracotta
  • East-West facing 
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Zeus at Olympia

Temple of Zeus at Olympia 

  • Built in 470BC 
  • 13-6 column ratio 
  • No internal walls, 16 double stacked columns 
  • Chryselephantine cult statue in the cella 
  • Two stacked columns in the pro noas 
  • It has a Ramp 
  • Doric temple 
  • Water spouts like lion heads 
  • 6 metopes front and back 
  • Victor of olympic games crowned in the pro noas 
  • Columns made out of limestone then covered in stucco
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Zeus at Olympia 2

Temple of Zeus at Olympia, east pediment 

  • The chariot race of Pelops and Oinomaos
  • Triangular shape 
  • Zeus is a staggering statue in the middle with a commanding presence 
  • In the corners are the river gods 
  • Both women wear a simple peplos
  • Servants are kneeling 
  • Oinomaos is explainging the conditions of the race 
  • Oinomaos's hand is confidently on his hip
  • Less engaging image but it's the meant to represent the tense moment before the race 
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Zeus at Olympia 3

Zeus at Olympia, West pediment 

  • The Lapith wedding, the battle between Laptiths and Centaurs
  • Apollo watches in the centre, commanding presence 
  • All figures are interlocking 
  • Pirithous king of Lapiths 
  • Lapiths are unarmed but Pirithous has a sword 
  • Bride is being attacked by centaur but she is calm and queen like, corners are lapith women 
  • Overall theme of this is the Greeks are Lapiths who fight clamly and do not sweat over fighting, the perfect form.
  • The Centaurs are barbarians who the Greeks are meant to be superior to 
  • Greeks vs Persians related 
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Zeus at Olympia 4

Zeus at Olympia, Metopes 

  • 12 Labours of Herakles
  • 1) Slay the Nemean lion
  • 2) Slay the nine-headed Lernaean hydra
  • 3) Capture the golden hind of Artemis
  • 4) Capture the Erymanthian boar
  • 5) Clean the Augean stables in a single day
  • 6) Slay the Stymphalian birds
  • 7) Capture the Cretan bull
  • 8) Steal the mares of Diomedes
  • 9) Obtain the girdle of Hippolyta, queen of the Amazons
  • 10) Obtain the cattle of the monster Geryon
  • 11) Steal the apples of the Hesperides, (Atlas)
  • 12) Capture and bring back Cerberus
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The Parthenon on the Acropolis

The Parthenon on the Acropolis

  • Ionic
  • Built in 438BC 
  • 8-17 Doric columns 
  • 4 Ionic columns in a room just inside from the Opisthodomos
  • 23 inner columns in the cella which are double stacked  
  • It has an upstairs
  • 6 Doric columns in the pro naos 
  • Antefixes ran along the whole roof 
  • Columns are marble
  • 3 step 
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The Parthenon on the Acropolis 2

The Parthenon on the Acropolis, pediments 

  • The east pediment is the birth of Athena 
  • The horse in the left is Selene and the one on the right is Nyx which are the horses of Helios 
  • Athena is born in armour from Zeus's head
  • The west pediment is the battle for patronage of Athens between Athena and Poseidon
  • Athena is with Nike and Hermes while Poseidon is with Amphitrite and Iris
  • The corners are heroes of Athens's past  
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The Parthenon on the Acropolis 3

The Parthenon on the Acropolis, Metopes 

  • Lapiths and Centaurs fighting at the wedding 
  • Representing the Greeks vs Persians 
  • Lapiths are Idyllic form while Centaurs are struggling
  • These are ones that are left 
  • Overall 92 Metopes 
  • East is Gods and giants 
  • West is Invasion of Athens by Amazons
  • North is Trojen war 
  • South is Lapiths 
  • Weapons added from metal 
  • Figures are awkward 
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The Parthenon on the Acropolis 4

The Parthenon on the Acropolis, frieze

  • The precession of Athena's birthday 
  • 1m high 
  • 150m long 
  • Low relief 
  • Begins in the south then works it way round 
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The Parthenon on the Acropolis 4

The Parthenon on the Acropolis, frieze

  • The precession of Athena's birthday 
  • 1m high 
  • 150m long 
  • Low relief 
  • Begins in the south then works it way round 
  • Horses for example the men on them are god like with flowing drapery to suggest movement also they show no effort in the act making them idyllic
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Propylaia on the Acropolis

Propylaia on the Acropolis 

  • 6 Doric columns in the front and back
  • 6 Ionic columns in the middle 
  • Built in 432BC
  • It has a pediment but no sculpture 
  • Triglyphs and metopes are present 
  • 4 steps 
  • Southwing smaller 
  • Acts as a gateway 
  • The North room is an art gallery 
  • Built by Mnesikles 
  • Entry is through the West
  • It has Antefixes 
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Athena Nike on the Acropolis

Temple of Athena Nike on the Acropolis

  • 4 Ionic columns in the pro noas and the opisthodomos
  • Small cella 
  • No door to the opisthodomos though cella 
  • Built in 425BC 
  • No pediment sculpture
  • Parapet outside 
  • Continuous frieze
  • North frieze is Greeks vs Persians
  • West is Greeks and other Greeks
  • East is Gods and Deities
  • Parapet surrounded the temple acts as a guard rail each has an independent scene such as Athena laying down her weapons
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Athena Nike on the Acropolis 2

Athena Nike on the Acropolis continued 

  • Statue of Athena Nike in its cella was made of wood and had a pomegranate branch, and also a helmet 
  • Statue has been deprived of its wings so it can never leave the city
  • Tetrastyle which is 4 columns  
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Apollo Epicurus at Bassae

The temple of Epicurus at Bassae 

  • 1 Corinthian Column
  • 10 Ionic columns which are conected to the wall 
  • 15-6 Doric columns 
  • 400BC completed 
  • N-S Facing 
  • Frieze is on the inside which has Centauromachy and Amazonomachy 
  • Grey limestone 
  • Frieze is high relief 23 panels 
  • 11 Greeks fighting centaurs and 12 greeks fighting amazon 
  • Could be made by the same person who made the Parthenon 
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Erechtheion on the Acropolis

Erechtheion on the Acropolis 

  • 420BC
  • Ionic temple
  • Ground is uneven 
  • Named after Erechtheus king of Athens 
  • Eastern cella 
  • Patron goddess of Athens is made out of wood and is standing armed with a shield with a gorgon head, she wears a peplos and is renewed every 4 years at the panathennaic and there was a golden lamp in front of her 
  • Western cella 
  • Dedicated to lots of gods and local heroes
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Erechtheion on the Acropolis 2

Erechtheion on the Acropolis, continued

  • The caryatids 6 columns of women in the South porch
  • Plated hair, boldstone, straight leg, effotless holding roof up 
  • 3 metres smaller 
  • There is a frieze and it held the gods on it 
  • 63m frieze 
  • North porch had a hole where Zeus lightning bolt struck or Poseidons trident struck
  • Olive branch grove on the western porch 
  • Entrance in the East and West
  • 6 Ionic columns in the North and East porch  
  • Pentelic marble columns
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Tholos at Epidauros

Tholos at Epidauros

  • 26 Doric columns 
  • Triglyphs and Metopes, floral pattern 
  • Built in 350BC 
  • It had palmets 
  • 14 Corinthian columns 
  • It had a maze of snakes in a labyrinth beneath it 
  • It had a painting of Eros 
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Philippeion at Olympia

Philippeion at Olympia

  • Built in 300BC 
  • Dedicted by Philip of Macedon
  • Dedicated to Zeus 
  • 5 Chryselephantine statues added by Alexander
  • 18 Ionic columns and 9 Corinthian columns 
  • Roof had carved marble 
  • Bronze poppy head 
  • Rhomboids in the floor 
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