Understanding human behaviour (Unit 12) revision q
.Q. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using a cognitive (cognitive
behavioural) approach with young children.
Advantages of cognitive approach:
· Structured/clear goals/measurable outcomes;
· Basic ideas are simple to understand;
· Gives strategies for self-help themselves;
· Works well with stress/anxiety;
Disadvantages of cognitive approach:
· A “quick fix” which deals with symptoms and
not underlying causes
· Requires the client to be able to understand
and think through causes and effects, to
problem solve and have insight;
· Would not be suitable where clients cannot
· May not work with young children;
· Clients may not want to talk about problems
Q. Define what is meant by a dysfunctional belief.
A. • idea of distorted/faulty/untrue/irrational thinking
• based on limited evidence or no evidence
Q. Explain why it is important to carry out an initial assessment.
- Gain background information about the client/looks at current behaviour or situation.
- Identify individual needs.
- Allows health/social care professional to decide the most appropriate form of treatment.
- allows changes/improvements to be measured.
Q. Explain why 16 to 24 year olds may drink too much alcohol.
- Bereavement or loss.
- Violence or bullying.
- Negative self-concept.
- Stress and inability to cope.
- Negative thinking.
- Marginalisation and social exclusion.
- Labelling and stereotyping
Question. Evaluate the effectiveness of the person-centred approach in helping alcoholics overcome their addiction.
• Approach is non-directive – counsellors are not intrusive
• Therapists meet clients as ‘equals’
• Therapists do not set themselves up as experts
• Does not require a diagnosis
• Avoids labelling
• May enjoy the opportunity to talk to someone
detached, not family or friend.
• Upholds key aspects of the Care Value Base.
• Key terms are difficult to understand
• Requires high degree of motivation on part of client
• Requires good communication skills
•May expect to be given advice.
Question: Raised blood pressure and cancer of the liver are examples of how our physical development may be affected by drinking too much alcohol.
Discuss how a person’s intellectual development may be affected by drinking too much alcohol.
They may not be able to concentrate for
any extended period of time and therefore not reach as high
levels of analysis/discussion. This is because they sometimes have hangovers/do not feel well because of the amount of alcohol they have and the amount of time they spend on socialising instead of studying.
Question: The humanistic approach uses person-centred counselling. Evaluate the use ofperson-centred counselling for someone who is an alcoholic.
Principles of a humanistic approach:
• works on the principle of letting a person talk;
• in a completely unthreatening environment;
Advantages of a humanistic approach with a person who is
• Counsellor is not intrusive – non-directive;
• Thus client is given the opportunity to talk;
• Easier to talk to someone who is not close;
• Counsellor meets client as an equal;
• Counsellor does not ‘show’ expertise;
• Counsellor is not judgemental;
• Thus client does not feel threatened;
• Promotes care value base (or descriptions given);
• Ensures clients feel they are considered;
Disadvantages of a humanistic approach with a person who is
• Requires client to be motivated;
• May not be motivated if they are depressed;
• May not believe that they have a problem
• Requires the client to be able to communicate;
• Alcoholics may be frightened about talking;
• Client may expect advice;
• They may not feel they are being helped.
• Approach’s key terms are difficult to understand;
Question: Explain the term ‘positive reinforcement’.
- Idea of reward;
- For good behaviour;
- Behaviour is likely to be repeated;
- Further detail e.g. example of reward;
Question: Identify two principles of a behavioural approach.
• Focus on observable behaviour
• Our behaviour is learned
• Behaviour that is rewarded / reinforced tends to get
Question: Explain what is meant by an ‘assessment’ and why this needs to be carried out.
- Idea of measuring/checking;
- Relating to present behaviour;
- Idea of changes cannot be known without assessment;
- Need a baseline against which they can measure the change in
Question: Explain the term ‘unconscious mind’.
- The unconscious mind is a store of all the thoughts / feelings /
- during our life / past experiences;
- They cannot easily be brought into our awareness;
- They can have a (powerful) effect on how we behave now;
Question: Explain what is meant by ‘time out’.
• Time out means removing someone from all
sources of social reinforcement
• Often used to extinguish unwanted behaviour
• Sitting a child in a corner for a short period
• Idea of calming down/reflection on
Question: Evaluate the effectiveness of a behavioural approach using ‘time out’ as a strategy when dealing with behaviour problems in young children.
• Simple idea to understand
• Based on principle that reinforced behaviour
will be repeated, rest will be extinguished
• Approach is easy to put into practice
• Generally quick results
• Used to ‘shape’ behaviour
• Avoids labelling
• Behavioural approach is objective – easy to
see relevant behaviour and agree when it is
• Does not take account of what people think
• Is not empowering for the individual
• Deals with symptoms only, not the cause
• ‘Time out’ can be upsetting for the child
• May associate ‘time out’ place with bad
experience creating further problems, e.g.
bedroom leading to sleep problems
• Some critics see it as a form of punishment
• Some critics see it as dehumanising with
individuals merely responding to and
repeating things that give them pleasure