Respiratory Diseases

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  • Created by: abby2711
  • Created on: 27-01-15 14:52

What is asthma?

Asthma is a respiratory condition marked by attacks of spasm in the bronchi of the lungs, causing difficulty in breathing

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What are the symptoms of ashtma?

  • frequent coughing
  • shortness of breath
  • feeling weak and tired
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Tests for asthma?

  1. SPYROMETRY
  2. PEAK EXPIRATORY FLOW TEST

1. measures how much air you inhale, how much you exhale & how quickly you exhale

2. (not as accurate as spyrometry): measurement of how much the patient can exhale in one breath

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What are the triggers of asthma?

Airborne allergens: pollen, animal dander, dust mites etc

Respiratory infections: common cold

Physical activity & cold air

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Solutions to ashtma?

INHALERS !!

medical device that delivers the medicine you need straight to your lungs, and because the medicine goes straight to where it's needed, you only need small amounts compared to tablet form medicines

--> MORE EFFICIENT  

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What is emphysema?

Emphysema destroys the walls of the alveoli in the lungs, resulting in a loss of surface area available for the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide during breathing

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What are the symptoms of emphysema?

  • shortness of breath
  • coughing / wheezing
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What causes emphysema?

Main cause is long term exposure to airborne irritants such as:

  • tobacco smoke
  • marijuana smoke
  • air pollution
  • manufacturing fumes
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Tests for emphysema?

  1. Pulmonary Function Tests: a patient sits inside an enclosed booth and breathes into a tube. the test measures how much air the lungs can cold, how much air remains trapped after exhalation, how rapidly a person can blow air out from their lungs
  2. CT Scan: shows the small pockets of air throughout the lung
  3. Chest X-Ray Scan: shows the patients abnormally large lungs
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Solutions to emphysema?

(treatment mainly focuses on treating the shortness of breath)

  1. OXYGEN THERAPY: reduces strain on the heart (typically inhaled through nasal cannula)
  2. LUNG VOLUME REDUCTION SURGERY: surgical removal of large areas of damaged lung
  3. LUNG TRANSPLANT: most drastic of treatments
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What is bronchitis?

bronchitis is an infection of the main airways of the lungs, causing them to become irritated and inflamed

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What are the symptoms of bronchitis?

  • MAIN = hacking cough that brings up yellow-grey mucus
  • sore throat
  • headache
  • fatigue
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What causes bronchitis?

either a virus or bacteria OR breathing in irritated substances = TOBACCO SMOKE

smoking is the main cause of long term bronchitis (Second hand or smokers themselves)

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How can bronchitis be treated?

most cases don't require GP treatment, but sufferers should:

  • immediately stop smoking as it aggrivates bronchitis
  • get plenty of rest
  • drink lots of fluid
  • if aches and pains = ibuprofen or paracetamol 
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What is lung cancer?

lung cancer is the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells that start in the cells that line the air passages. the abnormal cells don't develop into healthy lung tissue, they rapidly divide and form tumors

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what are the symptoms of lung cancer?

  • a long standing cough (2-3 weeks)
  • persistent chest infections
  • coughing up blood
  • unexplained weight loss
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what causes lung cancer?

smoking is the biggest risk factor, even though non smokers develop the condition

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Tests for lung cancer?

CAT scan

Chest X-ray

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Treatment for lung cancer?

surgery to remove cancerous cells

radiotherapy

chemotherapy

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