research methods, methods and techniques

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  • Created by: Hannah
  • Created on: 08-04-13 12:16

lab experiment

iv manipulated to observe effect on dv, highly controled

+can draw causal conclusion
+extraneous variables minimised
+can be easily replicated
-contrived, tends to lack mundane realism
-investigator and participant effects

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field experiment

more natuaral surroundings, IV direct manipulated by experimenter to observe effect on dv, some controll

+can draw causal concution
+usually higher ecological validity
+avoids some participant effects
-less control
-may have demand characteristics

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natural experiment

IV not directally manipulatged, it is one that would vary anyway. particapnts not randomy allocated

+allows research where the IV cant be manipulated for ethical/practical reasons
+allows psychologists to study 'real' problems
-cannot demonstrate causal relationships
-inevitably many extraneous variables
-investigator and participant effects

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Naturalistic observation

Everything is left as normal, all variables free to vary

+can't be manipulated
+high ecological validity
-poor control of extraneous variables
-observer bias
-low inter-observer reliability

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Controlled observation

Some variables controlled by the researcher, e.g the environment

+can manipulate variables to observe effect
-less natural, reduced ecological validity
-investigator and participant effects
-observer bias
-low inter-observer reliability

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Content analysis

Indirect observation of behaviour based on written or verbal material such as interviews or tv
+high ecological validity because based on what people do
+can be replicated easily
-observer bias
-low inter-observer reliability

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Questionnaires

Set of written questions

+easily replicated
+more willing to reveal personal information
+does not require specialist administrators
-leading questions, social desirability bias
-biased samples

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Interviews

Asked questions face to face

+more detailed information
+can access unexpected information
-social desirability bias, interview bias, leading questions
-require well trained people

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