Leading Religious Thinkers
- Leading Scholar
- Criticised Catholic church for abuses of power
- Remained Catholic, sympathys for Protestants
- Believed Catholic Church were corrupt
- God and Bible should be accessed in own language
- Believed Catholics were too concerned with money and power
- Most Radical in critiscims of Catholic Church
- Believed service should be in vernacular language
- Set up Calvinist (extreme protestantism) church in Geneva
- French Hugenots were Calvanist followers
- Reformer of Catholic Church
- Was a priest yet married
- Main Belief- Bible is true
Catholic/ Protestant Doctrinal
Transubstantiation- Bread and Wine of Communion literally turns into the blood and body of Christ
Consubstantiation- Protestant belief that the bread and wine is only a representation of the body and blood of Christ
Predestination- Future is already predetermined. Belief shared by Calvinist Theologists and also Archbishop of Cantebury-Whitgift
Challenge of Protestantism
- Majority of Puritans in England
- Loyal to Anglican Church.
- Saw John Calvinist as leader
- Wanted simple form of church and abolishment of hierachy
- Belief in predestination
- Extreme group who believed the Anglican Church was beyond redemption
- H8 marriage to Anne Boleyne led to break from Roman Catholic Church
- England followed Henrician Catholocism until end of his reign
- Henry became head of the Church of England
- Religous turmoil
- Protestant/ Catholic divide
- Weakining support for Tudor dynasty
- Roman Catholic then Protestant
- Finally Settled on Henrician Catholicism
- Protestant under Lord Protector- Duke of Somerset + Northumberland
- Introduced Book of Common Prayer
- Labelled Elizabeth as pieus
Mary I (bloody Mary)
- Roman Catholic
- Restored Popes authority in England
- Labelled Elizabeth as Heretic
- Burned over 300 Protestants
Clear she would move back to Protestantism.
- Protestant upbringing. Tutor Robert Ascham.
- Faced Catholic/Conservative oppossition.(House of Lords- Bishops bench, Leading Aristocracy D of Norfolk.)
- Fear of Rebellion. (Pilgrimage of Grace Henry VIII, Western Rebellion Edward VI, Wyatt Rebellion Mary I)
- Pressure(from Protestant exiles wanting reform)
Elizabeth wanted a 'Via Media' Settlement a middle way or compromise.
Act of Supremacy and Uniformity.(1559)
- EI established as Supreme Govenor of the Church.
Strict over Uniformity. Recuansy fines, Imprisonment for any other type of service.
57 of them, drawn up by Cecil.
Establish 'Via Media'
- Catholic - No more destruction of altars, Wafers at communion
- Protestant-Shrines and Pilgramidges banned, Clerical marriage allowed.
Establishing conformity and Control
- Preachers have to be licensed, All religious books have to be approved.
- Hoped to keep some Marian Bishops for conservatism. Suspicious of loyalty of ex bishops.
- Archbishop Parker not an exile. (Used to be her mothers Chaplin) Closer to the Queen in terms of ideals for Church Settlement.
Elizabeth thinks Bishops should be:
- Disciplinary - maintain discipline, enforce settlement and obdience. Queen and Parker.
- Pastoral- Encourage/support parish clergy and promote education in faith. Sandys and Grindal.
- Bishops encouraged to reform from within by Calvin.
Crucifix Controversy. (1559)
- Eliz wants crucifixs on the altar of every church.
- Sandys and Jewel say they will resign.
- So Eliz backs down (Only real time) She needs the Bishops.
Act of exchange in 1559.
- Queen has the right to take church lands and revenues threoretically in return for others.
- Queen used this to gain revenue and patronage.
- Oppossed by some bishops especially Sandys, saying she was improvising the Church.
- Opossed by large amount of Bishops and Clergy Parker publishes advertisments.
- Insisted on conformity to Adiaphora ( doesn't matter to get into heaven)
- Small compromise over Vestments Parish churchs only have to wear Vestments at special services otherwise surplices.
- Acts as Important for Puritans to move away from the Church.
Initially little open oppossition until the Vesterian contrversy:
1570 -Carthwright. Prof of Divinity at Cambridge. Calls for Puritanism
1571- Book and Bill. New Prayer Book H of C. Eliz Vetos
1572- Field won't wear his surplice. Imprisoned.
1575- Grindal becomes archbishop of Canterbury.
1) Arrival of MQS- 1568
2) The Northern Rebellion- 1569
3) Elizabeth's Excommunication- 1570
These events lead to increasing number of plots, which then lead to the increasing persecution of Catholics between 1570-1571