Religion + Religious Settlement


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  • Created by: Terri
  • Created on: 07-05-10 13:09

Leading Religious Thinkers

Leading Thinkers:


  • Leading Scholar
  • Criticised Catholic church for abuses of power
  • Remained Catholic, sympathys for Protestants


  • Believed Catholic Church were corrupt
  • God and Bible should be accessed in own language
  • Believed Catholics were too concerned with money and power


  • Most Radical in critiscims of Catholic Church
  • Believed service should be in vernacular language
  • Set up Calvinist (extreme protestantism) church in Geneva
  • French Hugenots were Calvanist followers


  • Reformer of Catholic Church
  • Was a priest yet married
  • Main Belief- Bible is true
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Catholic/ Protestant Doctrinal

Transubstantiation- Bread and Wine of Communion literally turns into the blood and body of Christ

Consubstantiation- Protestant belief that the bread and wine is only a representation of the body and blood of Christ

Predestination- Future is already predetermined. Belief shared by Calvinist Theologists and also Archbishop of Cantebury-Whitgift

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Challenge of Protestantism



  • Majority of Puritans in England
  • Loyal to Anglican Church.


  • Saw John Calvinist as leader
  • Wanted simple form of church and abolishment of hierachy
  • Belief in predestination


  • Extreme group who believed the Anglican Church was beyond redemption
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English Reformation


  • H8 marriage to Anne Boleyne led to break from Roman Catholic Church
  • England followed Henrician Catholocism until end of his reign
  • Henry became head of the Church of England


  • Religous turmoil
  • Protestant/ Catholic divide
  • Weakining support for Tudor dynasty
  • Rebellions
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Religious Rollercoaster

Henry VIII

  • Roman Catholic then Protestant
  • Finally Settled on Henrician Catholicism

Edward VI

  • Protestant under Lord Protector- Duke of Somerset + Northumberland
  • Introduced Book of Common Prayer
  • Labelled Elizabeth as pieus

Mary I (bloody Mary)

  • Roman Catholic
  • Restored Popes authority in England
  • Labelled Elizabeth as Heretic
  • Burned over 300 Protestants
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Religious Settlement

Clear she would move back to Protestantism.

  • Legitamacy
  • Protestant upbringing. Tutor Robert Ascham.


  • Faced Catholic/Conservative oppossition.(House of Lords- Bishops bench, Leading Aristocracy D of Norfolk.)
  • Fear of Rebellion. (Pilgrimage of Grace Henry VIII, Western Rebellion Edward VI, Wyatt Rebellion Mary I)
  • Pressure(from Protestant exiles wanting reform)

Elizabeth wanted a 'Via Media' Settlement a middle way or compromise.

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Religious Settlement

Act of Supremacy and Uniformity.(1559)

  • EI established as Supreme Govenor of the Church.

Strict over Uniformity. Recuansy fines, Imprisonment for any other type of service.

Royal Injunctions(1559)

57 of them, drawn up by Cecil.

Establish 'Via Media'

  • Catholic - No more destruction of altars, Wafers at communion
  • Protestant-Shrines and Pilgramidges banned, Clerical marriage allowed.

Establishing conformity and Control

  • Preachers have to be licensed, All religious books have to be approved.
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The Bishops

  • Hoped to keep some Marian Bishops for conservatism. Suspicious of loyalty of ex bishops.
  • Archbishop Parker not an exile. (Used to be her mothers Chaplin) Closer to the Queen in terms of ideals for Church Settlement.

Elizabeth thinks Bishops should be:

  • Disciplinary - maintain discipline, enforce settlement and obdience. Queen and Parker.
  • Pastoral- Encourage/support parish clergy and promote education in faith. Sandys and Grindal.
  • Bishops encouraged to reform from within by Calvin.
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Crucifix Controversy. (1559)

  • Eliz wants crucifixs on the altar of every church.
  • Sandys and Jewel say they will resign.
  • So Eliz backs down (Only real time) She needs the Bishops.

Act of exchange in 1559.

  • Queen has the right to take church lands and revenues threoretically in return for others.
  • Queen used this to gain revenue and patronage.
  • Oppossed by some bishops especially Sandys, saying she was improvising the Church.

Vesterian Controvesy(1566)

  • Opossed by large amount of Bishops and Clergy Parker publishes advertisments.
  • Insisted on conformity to Adiaphora ( doesn't matter to get into heaven)
  • Small compromise over Vestments Parish churchs only have to wear Vestments at special services otherwise surplices.
  • Acts as Important for Puritans to move away from the Church.
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Protestant Threat

Initially little open oppossition until the Vesterian contrversy:

1570 -Carthwright. Prof of Divinity at Cambridge. Calls for Puritanism

1571- Book and Bill. New Prayer Book H of C. Eliz Vetos

1572- Field won't wear his surplice. Imprisoned.

1575- Grindal becomes archbishop of Canterbury.

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Catholic Threat

1) Arrival of MQS- 1568

2) The Northern Rebellion- 1569

3) Elizabeth's Excommunication- 1570

These events lead to increasing number of plots, which then lead to the increasing persecution of Catholics between 1570-1571

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Brilliant Thankyous x

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