Naseby and the end of the first Civil War:
- Charles is defeated at the battle of Naseby.
- Naseby victory increased power of Cromwell, the only military commander.
- Parliament won due to better tax collection, organisation, control of capital and better allies.
- Royalists suffer more defeats at Langport.
- 1645, Prince Rupert surrenders in Bristol and sent into exhile by Charles.
- 1646, everyone want's peace, Parliament, army and the Scots.
- Royalists are a minority and are now like a resistance.
- Were defeated again in Edinburgh by New Model Army.
- Charles I has no option but to surrender to the Scots.
- Parliament attempted many settlements.
- Charles doesn't take them seriously, keeps delaying for better settlements.
- This was due to him wanting to take advantage the divided Parliament, Scots and New Model Army.
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- Parliament is still divided by moderates and radicals.
- These were soon known as the Political Presbyterians and Political Independents.
- Led by Denzil Holles and Philip Stapleton.
- Moderates and were known as the 'Peace Party'.
- Conservartive in social and political matters.
- Opposed religious toleration.
- Wanted peace with the King and would disband New Model Army.
- Increasingly disappointed with the New Model Army.
- Led by Cromwell an Henry Ireton.
- Radicals and known as the 'War Party'.
- Disliked the authority of Presbyterian Church.
- More religious toleration.
- Allies with the New Model Army to keep Charles in check.
- Would make peace and disband New Model Army is Charles I accepted limits to his power.
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July 1646, The Newcastle Propositions:
- The Political Presbyterians made the first attempt for a settlement.
- The settlement had plans such as:
- Religion - Charles had to accept a Presbyterian England for 3 years.
- Abolishing episcopacy, Bishops and the Church.
- Militia - Parliament was to control the Militia for 20 years.
- Parliament - The Triennial Act was to remain and regular Parliaments with limited King.
- Royalists - 58 Royalists were not to be pardoned and the rest free.
- Demobilise New Model Army but keep a smaller force to defeat the Irish Catholics.
- An alternative 'safe' army was to be created based on London trained bands.
- Declaration of Dislike - Document said army petitioners were enemies of the state.
- This Plan was inspired by a debt of £3,000,000 owed to the army.
- This prompted a new radical force to become politicised, the New Model Army.
HOW CHARLES RESPONDED TO THE NEWCASTLE PROPOSITIONS:
- Delayed the agreement on purpose to make Parliament fight amongst themselves.
- Still hoped he'd gain Irish/French support.
- Liked the fact Parliament was more religiously and politically unstable.
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New Model Army becoming Political:
- Created by Parliament in 1645 by merging 3 regional armies to make war more effective.
- Commanded by Fairfax with Cromwell as lieutenant general.
- New Model Army resented the Newcastle Propositions and the Declaration of Dislike.
- New Model Army and Political Independents saw the Political Presbyterians as making a rival army and were...
- Concerned that they were owed £3m but were going to be disbanded before they were paid.
- Concerned that they may be charged with offensives committed during the war as Parliament hadn't passed a Indemnity Act which would give soliders protection from prosecution for actions during the civil war.
- The New Model Army now became more political especially due to financial reason.
- They would eventually impacted settlement.
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New Model Army vs Parliament, 1646-49:
- New Model Amry wanted to redress it's concerns through what commanded it which was Parliament.
- Parliament = dominated by Political Presbyterians and failed to address the armys concerns.
- March 1646:
- Parliament resents New Model Army petition to redress concerns.
- May 1647:
- Commons accepts Charles reply to Newcastle propositions, army felt this was too lenient on Charles and Commons voted to disband them with only 8 weeks of pay.
- June 1647:
- N.M.A responded to this by meeting at Newmarket with Fairfax.
- Charles was then kidnapped by the army, Cornet George Joyce took him to the army's headquarters at Newmarket.
- New Model Army having physical control over Charles made them a force in politics of settlement.
- Army made a Humble Remonstrance, Army wouldn't disband until their conerns were addressed, had indemnity and Holles' Presbyterian faction removed.
- Army Marched to London to pressure enemies in Parliament.
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New Model Army vs Parliament, 1646-49:
- June 1647:
- Army wants to reinforce a Solemn Engagement, they wanted to impeach 11 Presbyterian MPs including Holles who saw him as the enemy.
- Army defended it's own rights and freedom.
- Wanted their concerns taken into account in the settlement.
- Politcal statements of the army were listened to due to it's force and physical control of the King.
- July 1647:
- Armies generals council with high ranking officers and low ranking adjutators met at Reading.
- Ireton presented a Heads of the Proposals to the rest of the army.
- Adjutators, key men who politicised the army had enough of Ireton and Cromwells 'moderate' plans.
- Army wanted to shut down Parliament.
- Cromwell and Ireton = negotiated with King on Moderate terms and seen as hypocrites.
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July 1647, The Heads of the Proposals:
- This was the army's own settlement plans with...
- Regularly every 2 years Parliament would be called.
- Episcopacy to be retained, but Bishops power reduced.
- Parliament's constituencies were to be reorgansied.
- Council of the State would be incharge of foreign policy but need Parliament's approval for war/peace.
- No Royalists were allowed to hold office to stan for election as punishment.
- New Model Army control of Charles allowed them to talk directly to him.
- These agreements could've been a result of Ireton's direct talk with Charles.
- Charles and Ireton talked, Ireton modified a few things.
- Cromwell and Ireton may have gone a bit too far to get Charles to accept the Heads of the Proposals.
- Ireton and Cromwell showed their attempt for a 'moderate' settlement which caused internal division in the army.
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The Putney Debates:
- Army officers negotiating with Charles over the Heads of the Proposals realised he wasn't being sincere.
- Charles failing to take the army plans seriously radicalised them even more and some wanting to remove the King.
- Tensions between army and Parliament increased.
- Political Presbyterians organised demonstrations for peace.
- The Political independents join the New Model Army to March into London.
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The Second Civil War, 1648-49:
- While Charles was imprisoned he was sent the 'Four billls' by Parliament.
- This was a combination of both Newcastle propositions and Heads of the Proposals.
- 11th November 1647, Charles escapes Hampden court and begins negotiating with the Scots.
- He needed them to campaign against Parliament. and Charles rejected the 'Four Bills' in December.
DECEMBER 1647, THE ENGAGEMENT:
- Charles had a secret meeting with the engagers, a faction of the Scottish covenanters who were disappointed with the alliance with English Parliament.
- Charles promised them 3 years of Presbyterianism in England if they invaded England against Parliament to restore the King's power.
- This deal meant the covenanters would betray their previous ally and invade England starting a Second Civil War.
- Parliament reacted hardening itself and the army.
- January 1648, Parliament voted on a 'No more negotiatians with the King'.
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April, 1648, Windsor Prayer Meeting:
- This = important in the Second civil war.
- The New Model Army gathered infront of their enemies and prayed.
- They used Bible passages and preachers that decribed Charles as a man of blood
- Many debated regicide, killing of the King for the first time publically.
HOW RELIGION HELPED THE NEW MODEL ARMY SUCCEED:
- Goldy officers - Officers and calvalry encouraged the army religiously.
- Chaplains - Appointed from each regiment and showed religious leadership via sermons, campaigns into battle and Bible studies.
- Visual Icons - Each regiment had it's own banners and relgious motto.
- Fasting and self reflection - Used to prepare for their military and politcal tests.
- Lay Preaching - Soliders themselves would preach.
- Equality - Creation of General counicls of the Army in 1647 and the Reading/Putney debates made a belief that they were valued by God.
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Events leading to a Royalist defeat:
- Series of Royalist and anti-Parliament/Presbyterian risings in South Wales, Kent and Yorkshire caused to divide the New Model Army across England and Wales.
- They effectively dealt with each threat:
- Fairfax and Ireton tackled the Risings in Kent, Cromwell was sent to Sotuh Wales, Lambert was sent to northern front to slow down the scottish invasion to the South.
- Cromwell crushed the rebels in South Wales and moved North to help Lambert in the Battle of Preston.
- Despite being outnumbered, they defeated the Scottish Royalist Army.
- October 1648, Cromwell and Lambert travel to Edinburgh to ensure that anti-engagers in Scotland led by Argyll were in power.
- Millinarians like Cromwell, Ireton and Harrison thought they were being directed by God.
- To them God opposed Charles.
- The 2nd civil war meant it would be impossible to make peace with Charles in the future.
- But still, Parliament wanted negotaitons with the King. But in the end it was the division of the Army and Parliament that led to the King's execution.
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