Charles: The Second Civil War:

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Naseby and the end of the first Civil War:

  • Charles is defeated at the battle of Naseby.
  • Naseby victory increased power of Cromwell, the only military commander.
  • Parliament won due to better tax collection, organisation, control of capital and better allies.
  • Royalists suffer more defeats at Langport.
  • 1645, Prince Rupert surrenders in Bristol and sent into exhile by Charles.
  • 1646, everyone want's peace, Parliament, army and the Scots.
  • Royalists are a minority and are now like a resistance.
  • Were defeated again in Edinburgh by New Model Army. 
  • Charles I has no option but to surrender to the Scots.
  • Parliament attempted many settlements.
  • Charles doesn't take them seriously, keeps delaying for better settlements.
  • This was due to him wanting to take advantage the divided Parliament, Scots and New Model Army.
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Parliamentary Factionalism:

  • Parliament is still divided by moderates and radicals.
  • These were soon known as the Political Presbyterians and Political Independents.


  • Led by Denzil Holles and Philip Stapleton.
  • Moderates and were known as the 'Peace Party'.
  • Conservartive in social and political matters.
  • Opposed religious toleration.
  • Wanted peace with the King and would disband New Model Army.
  • Increasingly disappointed with the New Model Army.


  • Led by Cromwell an Henry Ireton.
  • Radicals and known as the 'War Party'.
  • Disliked the authority of Presbyterian Church.
  • More religious toleration.
  • Allies with the New Model Army to keep Charles in check.
  • Would make peace and disband New Model Army is Charles I accepted limits to his power.
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July 1646, The Newcastle Propositions:

  • The Political Presbyterians made the first attempt for a settlement.
  • The settlement had plans such as:
    • Religion - Charles had to accept a Presbyterian England for 3 years. 
    • Abolishing episcopacy, Bishops and the Church.
    • Militia - Parliament was to control the Militia for 20 years.
    • Parliament - The Triennial Act was to remain and regular Parliaments with limited King.
    • Royalists - 58 Royalists were not to be pardoned and the rest free.
    • Demobilise New Model Army but keep a smaller force to defeat the Irish Catholics.
    • An alternative 'safe' army was to be created based on London trained bands.
    • Declaration of Dislike - Document said army petitioners were enemies of the state. 
  • This Plan was inspired by a debt of £3,000,000 owed to the army. 
  • This prompted a new radical force to become politicised, the New Model Army.


  • Delayed the agreement on purpose to make Parliament fight amongst themselves.
  • Still hoped he'd gain Irish/French support. 
  • Liked the fact Parliament was more religiously and politically unstable.
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New Model Army becoming Political:

  • Created by Parliament in 1645 by merging 3 regional armies to make war more effective.
  • Commanded by Fairfax with Cromwell as lieutenant general.
  • New Model Army resented the Newcastle Propositions and the Declaration of Dislike.
  • New Model Army and Political Independents saw the Political Presbyterians as making a rival army and were...
    • Concerned that they were owed £3m but were going to be disbanded before they were paid.
    • Concerned that they may be charged with offensives committed during the war as Parliament hadn't passed a Indemnity Act which would give soliders protection from prosecution for actions during the civil war.
  • The New Model Army now became more political especially due to financial reason.
  • They would eventually impacted settlement. 
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New Model Army vs Parliament, 1646-49:

  • New Model Amry wanted to redress it's concerns through what commanded it which was Parliament.
  • Parliament = dominated by Political Presbyterians and failed to address the armys concerns.
  • March 1646:
    • Parliament resents New Model Army petition to redress concerns. 
  • May 1647:
    • Commons accepts Charles reply to Newcastle propositions, army felt this was too lenient on Charles and Commons voted to disband them with only 8 weeks of pay.
  • June 1647:
    • N.M.A responded to this by meeting at Newmarket with Fairfax.
    • Charles was then kidnapped by the army, Cornet George Joyce took him to the army's headquarters at Newmarket.
    • New Model Army having physical control over Charles made them a force in politics of settlement. 
    • Army made a Humble Remonstrance, Army wouldn't disband until their conerns were addressed, had indemnity and Holles' Presbyterian faction removed.
    • Army Marched to London to pressure enemies in Parliament.
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New Model Army vs Parliament, 1646-49:

  • June 1647:
    • Army wants to reinforce a Solemn Engagement, they wanted to impeach 11 Presbyterian MPs including Holles who saw him as the enemy.
    • Army defended it's own rights and freedom.
    • Wanted their concerns taken into account in the settlement.
    • Politcal statements of the army were listened to due to it's force and physical control of the King.
  • July 1647:
    • Armies generals council with high ranking officers and low ranking adjutators met at Reading.
    • Ireton presented a Heads of the Proposals to the rest of the army.
    • Adjutators, key men who politicised the army had enough of Ireton and Cromwells 'moderate' plans. 
    • Army wanted to shut down Parliament. 
    • Cromwell and Ireton = negotiated with King on Moderate terms and seen as hypocrites.
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July 1647, The Heads of the Proposals:

  • This was the army's own settlement plans with...
    • Regularly every 2 years Parliament would be called.
    • Episcopacy to be retained, but Bishops power reduced.
    • Parliament's constituencies were to be reorgansied.
    • Council of the State would be incharge of foreign policy but need Parliament's approval for war/peace.
    • No Royalists were allowed to hold office to stan for election as punishment.
  • New Model Army control of Charles allowed them to talk directly to him.
  • These agreements could've been a result of Ireton's direct talk with Charles. 
  • Charles and Ireton talked, Ireton modified a few things.
  • Cromwell and Ireton may have gone a bit too far to get Charles to accept the Heads of the Proposals.
  • Ireton and Cromwell showed their attempt for a 'moderate' settlement which caused internal division in the army.
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The Putney Debates:

  • Army officers negotiating with Charles over the Heads of the Proposals realised he wasn't being sincere. 
  • Charles failing to take the army plans seriously radicalised them even more and some wanting to remove the King. 
  • Tensions between army and Parliament increased. 
  • Political Presbyterians organised demonstrations for peace.
  • The Political independents join the New Model Army to March into London. 


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The Second Civil War, 1648-49:

  • While Charles was imprisoned he was sent the 'Four billls' by Parliament.
  • This was a combination of both Newcastle propositions and Heads of the Proposals. 
  • 11th November 1647, Charles escapes Hampden court and begins negotiating with the Scots.
  • He needed them to campaign against Parliament. and Charles rejected the 'Four Bills' in December.


  • Charles had a secret meeting with the engagers, a faction of the Scottish covenanters who were disappointed with the alliance with English Parliament.
  • Charles promised them 3 years of Presbyterianism in England if they invaded England against Parliament to restore the King's power.
  • This deal meant the covenanters would betray their previous ally and invade England starting a Second Civil War.
  • Parliament reacted hardening itself and the army.
  • January 1648, Parliament voted on a 'No more negotiatians with the King'.
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April, 1648, Windsor Prayer Meeting:

  • This = important in the Second civil war.
  • The New Model Army gathered infront of their enemies and prayed.
  • They used Bible passages and preachers that decribed Charles as a man of blood 
  • Many debated regicide, killing of the King for the first time publically.


  • Goldy officers - Officers and calvalry encouraged the army religiously.
  • Chaplains - Appointed from each regiment and showed religious leadership via sermons, campaigns into battle and Bible studies.
  • Visual Icons - Each regiment had it's own banners and relgious motto. 
  • Fasting and self reflection - Used to prepare for their military and politcal tests.
  • Lay Preaching - Soliders themselves would preach.
  • Equality - Creation of General counicls of the Army in 1647 and the Reading/Putney debates made a belief that they were valued by God.
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Events leading to a Royalist defeat:

  • Series of Royalist and anti-Parliament/Presbyterian risings in South Wales, Kent and Yorkshire caused to divide the New Model Army across England and Wales. 
  • They effectively dealt with each threat:
  • Fairfax and Ireton tackled the Risings in Kent, Cromwell was sent to Sotuh Wales, Lambert was sent to northern front to slow down the scottish invasion to the South. 
  • Cromwell crushed the rebels in South Wales and moved North to help Lambert in the Battle of Preston.
  • Despite being outnumbered, they defeated the Scottish Royalist Army.
  • October 1648, Cromwell and Lambert travel to Edinburgh to ensure that anti-engagers in Scotland led by Argyll were in power.
  • Millinarians like Cromwell, Ireton and Harrison thought they were being directed by God.
  • To them God opposed Charles. 
  • The 2nd civil war meant it would be impossible to make peace with Charles in the future.
  • But still, Parliament wanted negotaitons with the King. But in the end it was the division of the Army and Parliament that led to the King's execution.
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