Religion in Tudor England no.2

Notes about the changes in religion in the reigns of Edward VI and Mary I.

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Beginning of Edward's reign

  • At the start of Edward's reign the catholic faction was weak. Gardiner had been excluded from council(his bishopric was later taken in 1551)
  • Edward was a strong protestant
  • Exiled foreign protestants were arriving
  • Therefore there was a high expectation for a strong protestant government.
  • However, the privy council were split; there was an even balance of opinion amongst the bishops, and thereofre the council was undecided about reform.
  • Furthermore, masses wanted to keep traditional practices; only 1/5 of londoners were protestant.
  • Also, somerset didn't want to antagonise Charles V
  • Therefore, initial reforming steps were hesitant.
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Reform

  • Cromwell's 1538 injunctions were reintroduced, with additions; e.g they encouraged iconoclasm
  • Cramner's homilies were encouraged
  • catholic legislation, such as the Act of 6 Articles and the Kings book were repealed.
  • Catholic opponents like Edmund Bonner were deprived of their sees
  • 1547: Chantries Act: 2374 chantries, 90 colleges and 110 hospitals were dissolved
  • The reasons were doctrinal and financial- the cash yield was arounf £16000
  • 1549: Priests allowed to marry
  • 1549: new prayer book (though slightly ambiguous.)
  • Act of Uniformity- defined only 5 sacraments, but no change to the eucharist
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Reform continued

  • Some radicals such as Bucer and Ridley called for more extreme change
  • As always, the effectiveness of new legislation depended on the willingness of bishops to carry out their new duties, e.g. visitations.
  • 1550: A new ordinal, with a more radical tone
  • 1552: Second edwardina Prayer Book.
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Mary I

  • It was clear that she would restore Catholicm
  • 1553: Statute of Repeal; the doctrine of the church was restored to as it had been under the 1547 articles
  • Mary's advisors encouraged caution in restoring Catholicm.
  • 1554: Second Statute of Repeal;
    • this ended royal supremacy and returned england to papal authority.
    • parliament would not recognise her plans of a full scale restoration of the monasteries, but she did return monastic lands which totaled £60000/year.
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persecution

  • Heresy laws were restored; Ridley, latimer and Cramner burnt
  • executions hardened the opposition , which encouraged colonies of exiles in eyurope.
  • The amount of executions exeeded any in the continent over the same period.
  • Unpopularity of the Marian regime spread, local authorites tried to avoid engorcement of legislation
  • Pole tried to instigate an eductaional programme
  • 'Procalmations issued by the Privy Council'- death penalty for anyone with heretical literature.
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