RE - Peace and Conflict

Peace and Conflict

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RE - Peace and Conflict - Issues of War and Peace

Why is the United Nations important for world peace?

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RE - Peace and Conflict - Issues of War and Peace

  • It imposes sanctions on countries threatening world peace
  • Authorising the use of force by members states
  • Sending a UN peace keeping force to:
    • Prevent the outbreak of conflict
    • Stabilise conflict situations and bring about a last peace agreement.
    • Help to make peace agreements work.
    • Bring about stable government (based on democracy and economic development) in conflict areas.
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RE - Peace and Conflict - Issues of War and Peace

Why did the UN become involved in Kosovo?

How did the UN deal with the situation?

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RE - Peace and Conflict - Issues of War and Peace

  • In the mid-1990's The UN sent a peacekeeping force to keep the Serbian army out of Kosovo and the Kosovo militia out of the Serbian parts of Kosovo.
  • The UN stopped the prospect of ethnic cleansing planned by the Serbs, after keeping the peace for 9 years, it helped establish a democratic Kosovar state in 2008.
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RE - Peace and Conflict - Issues of War and Peace

Why did the UN become involved in Rwanda?

How did the UN deal with the situation? 

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RE - Peace and Conflict - Issues of War and Peace

  • The UN was in Rwanda to help peace talks, after political party leaders were killed both on the Hutu and Tutsis side genocide occurred. The UN then had to try and prevent the slaughter of Rwandans. 
  • The UN did nothing, they could not help the Tutsis who were being slaughtered because they did not have clearance to fire on the Rwandans unless fired upon themselves. They could only watch and protect key places in Rwanda. 
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RE - Peace and Conflict - Issues of War and Peace

How do religious organisations work for world peace? (Pax Christi / Muslim Peace Fellowship)

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RE - Peace and Conflict - Issues of War and Peace

  • They organise meetings so that people learn about the horrors of war and vote for political parties working for peace.
  • They organise protests about war to change public opinion and therefore governments policies.
  • They organise and attend inter-faith conferences to help all religions to work together and promote world peace.
  • They work for economic justice and worldwide acceptance of human rights to remove the causes of war.
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RE - Peace and Conflict - Issues of War and Peace

Why do wars occur?

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RE - Peace and Conflict - Issues of War and Peace

  • Religion
  • Nationalism and ethnicity
  • Economics
  • Ideology and political differences
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How are wars caused by religion?

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  • If the followers of a religion are being treated badly in a different country, the followers in another country might invade to protect them. (Serbia invaded Kosovo to protect Orthodox Christians from Muslim majority).
  • Most of a country is one religion, but an area of the country is a different religion (Northern Ireland - Catholics and Protestants).
  • There are differences within a religion and one religious group attacks the other for having different beliefs (Taliban view on Islam attacking other views of Islam in Afghanistan).
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How are wars caused be nationalism and ethnicity?

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  • The belief that each separate ethnic group should have its own country leads to wars such as Tamil Tigers in Sri Lanka.
  • This can also lead to the belief that any minority ethnic group should also be removed from the country as happened in Rwanda 1994.
  • Where countries were created artificially, tensions between ethnic groups can lead to civil wars. Sudan and Kenya were artificially created by European conquerors, leading to the war in Darfur.
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How are wars caused by economics?

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  • Some people think that Iraq was invaded because the West wanted access to its oil reserves.
  • The economic crisis in Zimbabwe has led to mess migration of refugees in South Africa. Some South Africans have begun to attack the refugees to save their jobs.
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How are wars caused by ideology and political differences?

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  • In the Democratic Republic of Congo two different political groups are fighting each other for power. 
  • The Korean war began in 1949 when communist North Korea invaded Capitalist South Korea. The UN sent a force to protect the south, and a truce was declared in 1953 but there is still no peace.
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What are the criteria for a 'just war'?

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RE - Peace and Conflict - Issues of War and Peace

  • The cause of war is just (self defence).
  • It is being fought with the authority of the UN.
  • It is being fought with the intention to bring back peace.
  • It is begun as a last resort- all other ways of ending conflict have failed. 
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Why are some Christians pacifist?

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  • Jesus said Christians should love their enemies and turn the other cheek when attacked.
  • The fifth commandment says 'Do not kill'.
  • Jesus would not let Peter fight back when Jesus was being arrested.
  • They believe peace can only come when people refuse to fight. 
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Why do some Christians believe they can fight in just wars?

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  • It is the teaching of most of the Churches (Catholic, Anglican, Methodist, Baptist).
  • St Paul said that Christians have to obey the orders of the government, so Christians should fight in wars ordered by the Government.
  • Jesus did not condemn soldiers, he actually praised the faith of a Roman centurion.
  • They believe that if we need a police force to protect innocent people against criminals, we need armed forces to protect innocent states against criminal ones.
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Why do most Muslims believe they can fight in just wars?

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  • The Qur'an says that Muslims must fight it they are attacked.
  • Muhammad fought in wars.
  • They are many hadith from Muhammad saying Muslims should fight in wars.
  • The Qur'an says that a Muslim who dies in a just war will go straight to heaven.
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Why are some muslims pacifist?

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  • They believe that the nature of modern weaponry means that no war can be just, so they oppose war totally.
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What is bullying?

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RE - Peace and Conflict - Bullying

  • Bullying is frightening people weaker than you, bullying can include physical or verbal abuse.
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RE - Peace and Conflict - Bullying

Why are Christians against bullying?

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RE - Peace and Conflict - Bullying

  • Christianity regards using aggression or violence without a just cause as sinful.
  • Christians believe people are a creation of God and made in his image. Bullying is mistreating God's creation so is wrong.
  • It is the Duty of Christians to protect the weak and innocent (The Parable of the Good Samaritan) bullies do the opposite so are wrong. 
  • Jesus taught that Christians should treat others as if they were Jesus. No Christian would bully Jesus and so they should not bully anyone.
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Why are Muslims against bullying?

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RE - Peace and Conflict - Bullying

  • Islamic society is based on respect between members. Bullies have no respect for the people they bully and so do not understand Islamic society.
  • Islam regards suing violence without a cause sinful.
  • It is the duty of Muslims to protect the weak from the strong but bullies do they opposite and must be wrong.
  • Muhammad said, 'Every Muslim is a brother to every Muslim'. No one should bully their brother and so Muslims should not bully.
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How are religious conflicts within families caused by abandoning their parents' faith?

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  • Religion tells parents to bring their children up in the faith and make sure they will become full members as adults.
  • Parents worry that without religion their children will become immoral.
  • Parents worry that they will not see their children in the after-life.
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How are religious conflicts within families caused by children wanting to marry a partner form a different faith?

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  • Often there can be no religious wedding ceremony if they are not the same religion.
  • There is a question of which religion the children of the marriage will follow.
  • Parents feel their children have betrayed them by falling in love with someone from a different religion.
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How are religious conflicts within families caused by children becoming more religious than parents? 

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  • If the child wants to have a low paid job as a priest etc or joins a religious community and is not allowed to marry. So no family can cause conflict.
  • If the child criticises the parents (Catholics using contraception, Muslims running off-licenses).
  • If the child tries to force the parents to become more religious, for example Baptist children saying parents should read the Bible everyday. 
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How are religious conflicts within families cause by disagreements over moral issues?

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  • If a Catholic decides to divorce or marry someone else.
  • If a couple decide to live together instead of marrying.
  • If a family member decides to have an abortion.
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What do Christians believe about forgiveness and reconciliation?

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  • Jesus died on the cross to bring reconciliation and forgiveness.
  • Jesus said that if Christians do not forgive others, they will not be forgiven themselves.
  • St Paul said that Christians should try to live in peace with everyone.
  • All the Churches teach that Christians should use forgiveness and reconciliation to end conflicts.
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When should Christians not be reconciled with someone?

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  • Christians cannot be expected to forgive those who hate them.
  • Christians should fight against evil and so they should oppose and not forgive enemies/bullies/those who wrong them.
  • Christians are human and it is not natural for humans to forgive enemies/bullies/those who wrong them. 
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What do Muslims believe about forgiveness and reconciliation?

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  • God is compassionate and merciful to sinners, so Muslims should also be forgiving.
  • How can Muslims ask for Gods forgiveness on the Last Day if they are not prepared to forgive others?
  • The Qur'an says that Muslims should forgive those who offend them.
  • Muhammad said in many hadith that Muslims should be forgiving.
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When should Muslims not be reconciled with someone? 

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RE - Peace and Conflict - Peace and Reconciliation

  • Muslims should not forgive those who work against Islam or those who are denying Muslims beliefs. 
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