Psychology Unit 1- Memory MULTI STORE MODEL

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  • Created on: 23-03-14 13:54

Psychology Unit 1- Memory MULTI STORE MODEL

The Atkinson and Shiffrin Model

  • 1968
  • Stimulus input --> Sensory Memory--> attention--> Short term Store--> rehearsal--> Long term store---> rehearsal loop (back to STS)
  • Sensory memory- Visual, auditory, tactile coding, limited capacity, very brief duration- Iconic store (visual), Echoic store (auditory), Haptic store (tactile) EVIDENCE: Sperling (1960)- chart of three rows of letters very short exposures, recall immediately (4/5 out of 12). Then with tones (per row- 3 out of 4) Lab- high control, replicable, artificial stimulus. Consent, debriefing.
  • Short term store- mainly acoustic coding, limited capacity, brief duration- DISPLACEMENT- pushed out before going to LTM to make room for incoming items
  • Long term store- mainly semantic coding, unlimited capacity, unlimited duration- INTERFERENCE- info confused with similar info
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Psychology Unit 1- Memory MULTI STORE MODEL 2

Glanzer and Cunitz (1966)

  • Free recall: can recall items in any order
  • Condition 1- recall immediately after presentation
  • Condition 2- distractor task- backwards in 3's- 30 secs- before recall
  • Distractor task- disrupted recency effect- DISPLACEMENT of last few words- recency (fragile STM) but early words recalled (primacy effect- strong LTM)
  • Lab- Controlled, replicable, artifical, repeated & averages, consent, debrief


Digit span technique: Measures capacity of STM, repeat digits in order of presentation, no. of digits increase until recall inaccurate

Serial recall: recall in order of presentation

Factors affect capacity of STM

Influence of LTM, Reading aloud, pronunciation time, individual differences.

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Psychology Unit 1- Memory MULTI STORE MODEL 3

Peterson & Peterson (1959)

  • How long in STM without rehearsal
  • TRIGRAMS- consonants 
  • Backwards in 3's from specific no e.g. 451. Intervals of 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 secs
  • 80% trigrams recalled after 3 sec interval- recall worse longer intervals e.g. 18 secs- less than 10% correct- INFO DISAPPEARS QUICKLY FROM STM WHEN REHEARSAL IS PREVENTED
  • Lab- artificial, loss of info (capacity limits not duration?- counting displaced trigram?), trigrams on earlier trails confusion (PROACTIVE INTERFERENCE), consent, debrief

Factors affecting duration of STM

  • Rehearsal, intention to recall, amount of info to recall

Factors affection duration of LTM

  • Experimental designs, depth of learning, pattern of learning, nature of material to learn
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Psychology Unit 1- Memory MULTI STORE MODEL 4

Encoding STM Conrad (1964)

  •  6 consonants- rapid sequence on screen
  • Condition 1- acoustically similar (BGCTDV)
  • Condition 2- acoustically dissimilar (FJXMSR)
  • Write down in serial order- harder if acoustically similar- caused confusion- we must convert visual to acoustic in STM
  • Lab- controlled, artificial, students- not representative, consent, debrief

Encoding LTM Baddeley (1966)

  • Acoustically similar words, acoustically dissimilar, semantically similar, semantically dissimilar- 20 min interval- LTM
  • Acoustic- no difference, Similar meaning- poor recall- LTM CODES SEMANTICALLY
  • Lab- artifical (but used familiar words not just letters like Conrad), consent, debrief
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Psychology Unit 1- Memory MULTI STORE MODEL 5

Strengths & Weaknesses of MSM

  • Important contribution to memory research- distinction between STM & LTM
  • Too simple and inflexible- complexity of human memory- emphasis on how much info at one time- ingnores nature of infor e.g. remembering funny things or interesting things
  • Artifical lab studies- not everyday life
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