Psychology- Memory

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  • Created by: Claire_
  • Created on: 10-03-13 14:37
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  • Psychology- Memory
    • Unit 1
      • The multi-store model of memory- Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968)
        • Short-term memory
          • Mainly acoustic encoding
          • Limited capacity
          • Information can decay
        • Sensory store
          • Visual encoding
          • Very brief capacity and duration
          • Information can decay
        • Long-term memory
          • Mainly semantic encoding
          • Unlimited capacity and duration
        • Evaluation
          • Made an important contribution to memory research.
          • Plenty of evidence to support the distinction between short-term and long-term memory and the sensory store.
          • Model is over-simplified, no account of the nature of things we have to remember.
          • Evidence that simple repetition is one of the least effective ways of passing information on.
          • Some evidence points to an interaction between STM and LTM.
          • Much of the supporting evidence comes from artificial lab studies.
        • Supporting research
          • Sperling (1960)- Sensory store
          • Peterson & Peterson (1959)- STM duration
          • Jacobs (1887)- STM capacity
          • Conrad (1964)- STM encoding
          • Bahrick et al (1975)- LTM duration
          • Baddeley (1966)- LTM encoding
    • Unit 2
      • The working model of memory
        • According to Baddeley and Hitch, working memory is a complex and flexible system comprised of three main components
          • Central Executive
            • Considered the most important part of the working memory
            • Sets goals
            • Monitoring and correcting errors
            • Switching attention between tasks
            • Inhibiting irrelevant information
            • Retrieving information from LTM
          • Slave system 1
            • Phonological Loop- holds verbal information in a speech-based form
            • It consists of two parts
              • Phonological store- inner ear
              • Articulatory control system- inner voice
          • Slave system 2
            • Visuo-Spatial Sketchpad- holds visual and spatial information
            • Episodic Buffer- bind together all the other information
        • Supporting research
          • Phonological loop
            • Thomson and Buchanan (1975)
          • Articulatory loop
            • Baddeley et al (1975)
          • The working model of memory
            • Dual Task Method
          • Visuo-spatial sketchpad
            • Baddeley, Grant, Wright and Thomson (1973)
            • Shepard and Feng (1972)
          • Central Executive
            • Baddeley (1999)
        • Evaluation
          • Berz (1995) criticised the model for failing to account for musical memory; we are able to listen to instrumental music.
          • Working models do not offer a complete understanding of how memory works.
          • Possible to apply the model to previous research data.
          • Accounts for individual differences in memory processing.
          • More plausible model than the multi-store model of memory; explains STM in terms of both storage and active processing.
          • Attempts to explain how the memory functions rather than how it 'store' information.
    • Unit 3
      • Eyewitness testimony (EWT)
        • EWT is the evidence given in court or in police investigations by someone who has witnessed a crime or acciddent
        • Supporting  research
          • Loftus (1975)- Post-event information and leading questions
          • Loftus and Zanni (1975)
          • Loftus and Palmer (1974)
        • Other factors affecting eyewitness testimony
          • Anxiety
            • Foster et al. (1994)
            • Loftus and Burns (1982)
          • Age
            • Flin et al. (1992)
            • Poole
            • Gordon et al. (2001)
            • Davies (1994)
            • Yarmey (1984)
            • Cohen and Faulkner (1989)
      • The  cognitive interview
        • Context reinstatement
        • Report everything
        • Recall from a changed perspective
        • Recall in reverse order
        • Supporting research
          • Koehnken et al. (1999)
          • Fisher et al. (1990)
          • Milne and Bull (2002)
          • Geiselman (1999)
    • Unit 4
      • Memory improvement
        • Keyword technique
        • Method of loci
        • Peg-word system
        • Face-name system
        • Acronym
        • Acrostic

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